Research in Drug Development (RD3)

Pharmacognosy Bioanalysis and Drug Discovery

Contact
 

Research activities

His research field is the analysis of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins by mass spectrometry. The targeted PTMs are the oxidative ones (oxidation of tryptophan, tyrosine, lysine, cysteine, …) in the context of chronic inflammation pathologies/oxidative stress like in atherosclerosis/cardiovascular disease. Another type of PTMs that he studies, is the glycosylation. Glycosylation is the most abundant modification of proteins, and in the context of therapeutic proteins, more than 60 % of the currently approved biotherapeutics are glycosylated. His research is also devoted to the development of analytical tools for the other “omics” fields mainly metabolomics and proteomics. He currently develops his research projects in the RD3-PBM unit and the Analytical Platform of the Faculty of Pharmacy

Top ten recent articles

Articles dans des revues avec comité de lecture

A paraître

Updates of the current strategies of labeling for N-glycan analysis

Helali, Y., & Delporte, C. (2024). Updates of the current strategies of labeling for N-glycan analysis. Journal of chromatography. B.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/369246/3/Revueversionfinale.pdf

 

Targeted metabolomics and transcript profiling of methyltransferases in three coffee species

Montis, A., Delporte, C., Noda, Y., Stoffelen, P., Stévigny, C., Hermans, C., Van Antwerpen, P., & Souard, F. (2024). Targeted metabolomics and transcript profiling of methyltransferases in three coffee species. Plant science.  

Xanthines are the most known alkaloids present in coffee plants. The studies about their metabolism and their pharmacological activities have started several years ago to provide more information about the chemical properties of the most popular beverages in the world, such as coffee or tea. This work consisted in performing metabolomic analysis based on LC-(HR)MS data to investigate the metabolism of xanthines in the leaves and in the fruits of Coffea anthonyi, Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. While C. arabica and C. canephora have been widely studied, only few information is available for C. anthonyi. However, due to the wide climate changes, this species growing at low altitudes could be a promising species to make coffee beverages. The expression of genes for proteins involved in xanthines biosynthesis has also been investigated by performing RT-qPCR. An overview of the histolocalisation of xanthines in the different organs of Coffea arabica flowers was also provided.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/365663/3/article_cafe_24_01_22.pdf

 

2024

Development and validation of online SPE purification coupled to HILIC-fluorescence-MS analysis for the characterization of N-glycans

Helali, Y., Bourez, A., Marchant, A., Vander Heyden, Y., Van Antwerpen, P., & Delporte, C. (2024). Development and validation of online SPE purification coupled to HILIC-fluorescence-MS analysis for the characterization of N-glycans. Talanta, 270, 125541. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2023.125541  

N-glycans of therapeutic glycoproteins is a critical quality attribute to be addressed. We developed a sensitive method for N-glycan characterization using procainamide (ProcA) labelling and online solid phase extraction (online SPE). N-glycans were enzymatically released, then labeled with ProcA and cleaned up via the online SPE using HILIC chemistry (online HILIC SPE). Two preparation protocols were optimized: a short one (1 h 30) and a long one (18 h). Furthermore, the developed approach was compared to RapiFluor-MS (RFMS) kit (from Waters) and to InstantPC kit (from Agilent) which both include a classical HILIC μElution plate SPE purification. Samples were analyzed using HILIC separation coupled to fluorescence and MS detection (HILIC-FLD-MS) with or without the online HILIC SPE. During the validation, repeatability, intermediate precision, stability, response function and injection volume were tested. Human IgG mix (Multigam®) and NIST mAb standard were used as references as their glycoprofiles are well described. A comparison of three batches of a rituximab biosimilar (Truxima®) and one batch of its originator (MabThera®) was also performed. Online HILIC SPE sample cleanup shows a higher sensitivity and repeatability compared to the classical HILIC μElution SPE. Our online HILIC SPE approach also offers the highest MS signal compared to both commercial kits. However, InstantPC shows the highest FLD signal. The analyses of rituximab samples were in line with the literature showing the efficiency of the method for N-glycan monitoring of biotherapeutics. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the usefulness and ease of application of the developed protocol with the online HILIC SPE purification.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/368240/3/Manuscript_Talanta_R2_v02_HY_clean.pdf

 

Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Conformity Analysis of e-Liquids: Illegal Additive Detection and Nicotine Characterization

Akhtar, Z., Barhdadi, S., De Braekeleer, K., Delporte, C., Adams, E., & Deconinck, E. (2024). Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Conformity Analysis of e-Liquids: Illegal Additive Detection and Nicotine Characterization. Chemosensors, 12(1), 9. doi:10.3390/chemosensors12010009  

Vaping electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has become a popular alternative to smoking tobacco. When an e-cigarette is activated, a liquid is vaporized by heating, producing an aerosol that users inhale. While e-cigarettes are marketed as less harmful than traditional cigarettes, there are ongoing concerns about their long-term health effects, including potential lung damage. Therefore, it is essential to closely monitor and study the composition of e-liquids. E-liquids typically consist of propylene glycol, glycerin, flavorings and nicotine, though there have been reports of non-compliant nicotine concentrations and the presence of illegal additives. This study explored spectroscopic techniques to examine the conformity of nicotine labeling and detect the presence of the not-allowed additives: the caffeine, taurine, vitamin E and cannabidiol (CBD) in e-liquids. A total of 236 e-liquid samples were carefully selected for analysis. Chemometric analysis was applied to the collected data, which included mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra. Supervised modeling approaches such as partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were employed to classify the samples, based on the presence of nicotine and the targeted additives. This study demonstrates the efficacy of MIR and NIR spectroscopic techniques in conjunction with chemometric methods (SIMCA and PLS-DA) for detecting specific molecules in e-liquids. MIR with autoscaling data preprocessing and PLS-DA achieved 100% classification rates for CBD and vitamin E, while NIR with the same approach achieved 100% for CBD and taurine. Overall, MIR combined with PLS-DA yielded the best classification across all targeted molecules, suggesting its preference as a singular technique.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/371607/1/doi_355251.pdf

 

2023

Untargeted Metabolomics Approach Correlated Enniatin B Mycotoxin Presence in Cereals with Kashin-Beck Disease Endemic Regions of China.

Sun, D., Chasseur, C., Mathieu, F., Lechanteur, J., Van Antwerpen, P., Rasschaert, J., Fontaine, V., & Delporte, C. (2023). Untargeted Metabolomics Approach Correlated Enniatin B Mycotoxin Presence in Cereals with Kashin-Beck Disease Endemic Regions of China. Toxins, 15(9). doi:10.3390/toxins15090533  

Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a multifactorial endemic disease that only occurs in specific Asian areas. Mycotoxin contamination, especially from the Fusarium spp., has been considered as one of the environmental risk factors that could provoke chondrocyte and cartilage damage. This study aimed to investigate whether new mycotoxins could be identified in KBD-endemic regions as a potential KBD risk factor. This was investigated on 292 barley samples collected in Tibet during 2009-2016 and 19 wheat samples collected in Inner Mongolia in 2006, as control, from KBD-endemic and non-endemic areas. The LC-HRMS(/MS) data, obtained by a general mycotoxin extraction technic, were interpreted by both untargeted metabolomics and molecular networks, allowing us to identify a discriminating compound, enniatin B, a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium spp. The presence of Fusarium spp. DNA was detected in KBD-endemic area barley samples. Further studies are required to investigate the role of this mycotoxin in KBD development in vivo.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/365309/1/doi_348953.pdf

 

Hyperbaric oxygenation improve red blood cell deformability in patients with acute or chronic inflammation

Steenebruggen, F., Jacobs, D., Delporte, C., Van Antwerpen, P., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Biston, P., & Piagnerelli, M. (2023). Hyperbaric oxygenation improve red blood cell deformability in patients with acute or chronic inflammation. Microvascular research, 148, 104534. doi:10.1016/j.mvr.2023.104534  

Introduction: Red blood cells (RBC) are one of the key elements of the microcirculation. Their ability to pass through capillaries and to deliver oxygen to cells is due to their large degree of deformability linked to the characteristics of the RBC membrane. Alterations in RBC deformability as a result of membrane damage, linked in part to increased synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS), can be observed in several diseases, such as sepsis, and may contribute to the altered microcirculation observed in these pathologies. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), with inhalation of 100 % oxygen, has been proposed in several acute or chronic pathologies, including carbon monoxide poisoning. Objective: We investigated the effects of HBOT on oxidative stress from ROS produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO) and on RBC deformability in patients with acute or chronic inflammation (n = 10), in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning (n = 10), and in healthy volunteers (n = 10). Methods: RBC deformability was evaluated before and after HBOT in the various populations using the ektacytometry technique (Laser-assisted Optical Rotational Red Cell Analyzer - LORRCA). Deformability was determined by the elongation index (EI) in relation to the shear stress (SS) over a range of 0.3 to 50 Pa. Oxidative stress was estimated through changes in proteins (chlorotyrosine and homocitrulline) induced by MPO activity measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Before HBOT, EI was significantly lower in patients with acute or chronic inflammation than in healthy volunteers and patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning for the majority of SS values studied. After one session of HBOT, the EI was significantly higher than before HBOT for SS values of 1.93 Pa or higher in patients with acute or chronic inflammation. This effect remains constant after 10 sessions. There were no differences before and after HBOT in protein or amino acid oxidation due to ROS generation mediated by MPO in the three populations. Conclusions: Our results confirm altered RBC deformability in patients with acute and chronic conditions associated with an underlying inflammatory process. HBOT improves deformability only after one session and therefore may improve microcirculation in this population. According to our results, this improvement does not seem mediated by the ROS pathway via MPO. These results need to be confirmed in a larger population.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/360124/3/1-s2.0-S0026286223000602-main.pdf

 

Role of Myeloperoxidase in ROS Generation and Inflammation Response on Prostate Epithelial Cells

Roumeguere, T., Noyon, C., Van Antwerpen, P., Poelvoorde, P., Bar, I., Abdulsater, F., Rousseau, A., Delporte, C., Vanhamme, L., Vanhaeverbeek, M., Delree, P., & Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K. (2023). Role of Myeloperoxidase in ROS Generation and Inflammation Response on Prostate Epithelial Cells. Inflammation. doi:10.1007/s10753-023-01846-x  

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) has been reported in prostate tissue, and considering its pro-oxidant properties, this location might be linked to prostate pathology. The possibility that the glandular prostatic tissue might be the source of MPO and its potential inflammatory effects must be tested. Human prostate material was obtained from prostate biopsies and radical prostatectomies. Immunohistochemistry was performed using MPO-specific human antibody. In situ hybridization using MPO-specific probes and laser-assisted microdissection for quantitative real-time RT-PCR were performed to observe whether MPO is being produced in prostate tissue. Mass spectrometry on prostate biopsies was used to detect products of MPO activity in nucleic acids (DNA/RNA). MPO contribution to intracellular accumulation of ROS and interleukin-8 in prostatic epithelial cells was monitored in vitro. Immunohistochemistry confirmed cellular localization of MPO in epithelial cells of the prostate. The staining varied from light to high intensity. In situ hybridization did not address the presence of mRNA coding for MPO. No MPO-specific modifications on nucleic acids were detected. Mox-LDL was a major factor inducing ROS and cytokines production in prostatic epithelial cells. We did not demonstrate that MPO was synthetized by prostatic epithelial cells. However, in vitro experiments showed the ability of MPO to potentiate the ROS production and inflammation on prostate epithelial cells. Results do not allow us to demonstrate a role of MPO in prostate to date but further studies are mandatory to focus on the potential impact of MPO in the development of prostatic diseases.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/360125/3/s10753-023-01846-x.pdf

 

The Major Stilbene Compound Accumulated in the Roots of a Resistant Variety of Phoenix dactylifera L. Activates Proteasome for a Path in Anti-Aging Strategy

Benabbes, R., Ouahhoud, S., Moueqqit, M., Addi, M., Hano, C., Delporte, C., Nacoulma, A., & Megalizzi, V. (2023). The Major Stilbene Compound Accumulated in the Roots of a Resistant Variety of Phoenix dactylifera L. Activates Proteasome for a Path in Anti-Aging Strategy. Cells, 12(1), 71. doi:10.3390/cells12010071  

The main objective of the present study is to estimate, through differential analysis, various biological activities of total phenolics content in alcoholic extracts of three date palm varieties sensitive or resistant to Fusarium oxysporum. sp Albidinis. Here, stilbene products with antioxidant and bioactive capacities were evidenced in resistant variety Taabdount (TAAR). Furthermore, the methanolic fraction of the TAAR-resistant date palm variety contains a significant product, determined by LC-MS/MS and 1H, 13C NMR, belonging to the family of hydroxystilbenes, which exhibits antioxidant capacities, inhibits the mushroom tyrosinase activity, and activates and exerts a protective effect on hypochlorite-induced damage in 20S proteasome of human dermal fibroblast aged cells. Altogether, the present results indicate that hydroxystilbene present in resistant Phoenix dactylifera L. should be studied to understand the way that the stilbene could exert anti-aging ability.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/356726/1/doi_340370.pdf

 

2022

A lipid transfer protein ensures nematode cuticular impermeability

Ngale Njume, F., Razzauti Sanfeliu, A., Soler García, M., Perschin, V., Fazeli, G., Bourez, A., Delporte, C., Ghogomu Mbigha, S., Poelvoorde, P., Pichard, S., Birck, C., Poterszman, A., Souopgui, J., Van Antwerpen, P., Stigloher, C., Vanhamme, L., & Laurent, P. (2022). A lipid transfer protein ensures nematode cuticular impermeability. iScience, 25(11), 105357. doi:10.1016/j.isci.2022.105357  

The cuticle of C. elegans is impermeable to chemicals, toxins, and pathogens. However, increased permeability is a desirable phenotype because it facilitates chemical uptake. Surface lipids contribute to the permeability barrier. Here, we identify the lipid transfer protein GMAP-1 as a critical element setting the permeability of the C. elegans cuticle. A gmap-1 deletion mutant increases cuticular permeability to sodium azide, levamisole, Hoechst, and DiI. Expressing GMAP-1 in the hypodermis or transiently in the adults is sufficient to rescue this gmap-1 permeability phenotype. GMAP-1 protein is secreted from the hypodermis to the aqueous fluid filling the space between collagen fibers of the cuticle. In vitro, GMAP-1 protein binds phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine while in vivo, GMAP-1 sets the surface lipid composition and organization. Altogether, our results suggest GMAP-1 secreted by hypodermis shuttles lipids to the surface to form the permeability barrier of C. elegans.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/355641/1/doi_339285.pdf

 

Targeted and Untargeted Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics for Chemical Profiling of Three Coffee Species

Montis, A., Souard, F., Delporte, C., Stoffelen, P., Stévigny, C., & Van Antwerpen, P. (2022). Targeted and Untargeted Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics for Chemical Profiling of Three Coffee Species. Molecules (Print Archive Edition), 27(10), 3152. doi:10.3390/molecules27103152  

While coffee beans have been studied for many years, researchers are showing a growing interest in coffee leaves and by-products, but little information is currently available on coffee species other than Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. The aim of this work was to perform a targeted and untargeted metabolomics study on Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora and Coffea anthonyi. The application of the recent high-resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolomics tools allowed us to gain a clear overview of the main differences among the coffee species. The results showed that the leaves and fruits of Coffea anthonyi had a different metabolite profile when compared to the two other species. In Coffea anthonyi, caffeine levels were found in lower concentrations while caffeoylquinic acid and mangiferin-related compounds were found in higher concentrations. A large number of specialized metabolites can be found in Coffea anthonyi tissues, making this species a valid candidate for innovative healthcare products made with coffee extracts.

 

Unexpected Role of MPO-Oxidized LDLs in Atherosclerosis: In between Inflammation and Its Resolution

Tangeten, C., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Delporte, C., Van Antwerpen, P., & Korpak, K. (2022). Unexpected Role of MPO-Oxidized LDLs in Atherosclerosis: In between Inflammation and Its Resolution. Antioxidants, 11(5), 874. doi:10.3390/antiox11050874  

Inflammation and its resolution are the result of the balance between pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving factors, such as specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). This balance is crucial for plaque evolution in atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) has been related to oxidative stress and atherosclerosis, and MPO-oxidized low-density lipoproteins (Mox-LDLs) have specific characteristics and effects. They participate in foam cell formation and cause specific reactions when interacting with macrophages and endothelial cells. They also increase the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in macrophages and the resulting antioxidant response. Mox-LDLs also drive macrophage polarization. Mox-LDLs are known to be pro-inflammatory particles. However, in the presence of Mox-LDLs, endothelial cells produce resolvin D1 (RvD1), a SPM. SPMs are involved in the resolution of inflammation by stimulating efferocytosis and by reducing the adhesion and recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes. RvD1 also induces the synthesis of other SPMs. In vitro, Mox-LDLs have a dual effect by promoting RvD1 release and inducing a more anti-inflammatory phenotype macrophage, thereby having a mixed effect on inflammation. In this review, we discuss the interrelationship between MPO, Mox-LDLs, and resolvins, highlighting a new perception of the role of Mox-LDLs in atherosclerosis.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/356727/1/doi_340371.pdf

 

Article In Vitro Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties of Various E. senegalensis Extracts

Fofana, S., Delporte, C., Calvo Esposito, R., Ouédraogo, M., Van Antwerpen, P., Guissou, I., Semdé, R., & Mathieu, V. (2022). Article In Vitro Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties of Various E. senegalensis Extracts. Molecules, 27(8), 2583. doi:10.3390/molecules27082583  

Although Erythrina senegalensis is a plant widely used in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa, its biological properties have been poorly investigated to date. We first characterized by conventional reactions the composition of several stem bark extracts and evaluated in acellular and cellular assays their pro-or antioxidant properties supported by their high phenolic and flavonoid content, particularly with the methanolic extract. The pro-or antioxidant effects observed did not correlate with their IC50 concentrations against five cancer cell lines determined by MTT assay. Indeed, the CH2 Cl2 extract and its ethyl acetate (EtOAc) subfraction appeared more potent although they harbored lower pro-or antioxidant effects. Nevertheless, at equipotent concentration, both extracts induced ER-and mitochondria-derived vacuoles observed by fluorescent microscopy that further led to non-apoptotic cell death. LC coupled to high resolution MS investigations have been performed to identify chemical compounds of the extracts. These investigations highlighted the presence of compounds formerly isolated from E. senegalensis including senegalensein that could be retrieved only in the EtOAc subfraction but also thirteen other compounds, such as 16:3-Glc-stigmasterol and hexadecanoic acid, whose anticancer properties have been previously reported. Nineteen other compounds remain to be identified. In conclusion, E. senegalensis appeared rich in compounds with antioxidant and anticancer properties, supporting its use in traditional practice and its status as a species of interest for further investigations in anticancer drug research.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/344309/1/doi_327953.pdf

 

Effects of the flow diversion technique on nucleotide levels in intra-cranial aneurysms: A feasibility study providing new research perspectives.

Eker, O. F., Lubicz, B., Cortese, M., Delporte, C., Berhouma, M., Chopard, B., Costalat, V., Bonafé, A., Alix-Panabières, C., Van Antwerpen, P., & Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K. (2022). Effects of the flow diversion technique on nucleotide levels in intra-cranial aneurysms: A feasibility study providing new research perspectives. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, 9, 885426. doi:10.3389/fcvm.2022.885426  

The flow diverter stent (FDS) has become a first-line treatment for numerous intra-cranial aneurysms (IAs) by promoting aneurysm thrombosis. However, the biological phenomena underlying its efficacy remain unknown. We proposed a method to collect in situ blood samples to explore the flow diversion effect within the aneurysm sac. In this feasibility study, we assessed the plasma levels of nucleotides within the aneurysm sac before and after flow diversion treatment.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/353094/1/doi_336738.pdf

 

2021

Development of Neutralizing Multimeric Nanobody Constructs Directed against IL-13: From Immunization to Lead Optimization

Gevenois, P., De Pauw, P., Schoonooghe, S., Delporte, C., Sebti, T., Amighi, K., Muyldermans, S., & Wauthoz, N. (2021). Development of Neutralizing Multimeric Nanobody Constructs Directed against IL-13: From Immunization to Lead Optimization. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 207(10), 2608-2620. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.2100250  

IL-13 is a pleiotropic cytokine mainly secreted by Th2 cells. It reacts with many different types of cells involved in allergy, inflammation, and fibrosis, e.g., mastocytes, B cells, and fibroblasts. The role of IL-13 in conditions involving one or several of these phenotypes has therefore been extensively investigated. The inhibition of this cytokine in animal models for various pathologies yielded highly promising results. However, most human trials relying on anti-IL-13 conventional mAbs have failed to achieve a significant improvement of the envisaged disorders. Where some studies might have suffered from several weaknesses, the strategies themselves, such as targeting only IL-13 using conventional mAbs or employing a systemic administration, could be questioned. Nanobodies are recombinant Ag-binding fragments derived from the variable part of H chain-only Abs occurring in Camelidae. Thanks to their single-domain structure, small size (≈15 kDa), good stability, and solubility, they can be engineered into multispecific constructs for combined therapies or for use in new strategies such as formulations for local administration, e.g., pulmonary administration. In this study, we describe the generation of 38 nanobodies that can be subdivided into five CDR3 families. Nine nanobodies were found to have a good affinity profile (KD = 1-200 nM), but none were able to strongly inhibit IL-13 biological activity in vitro (IC50 > 50 µM: HEK-Blue IL-13/IL-4 cells). Multimeric constructs were therefore designed from these inhibitors and resulted in an up to 36-fold improvement in affinity and up to 300-fold enhancement of the biological activity while conserving a high specificity toward IL-13.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/339144/3/Gevenois.pdf

 

Coffee Leaves: An Upcoming Novel Food?

Montis, A., Souard, F., Delporte, C., Stoffelen, P., Stévigny, C., & Van Antwerpen, P. (2021). Coffee Leaves: An Upcoming Novel Food? Planta medica, 87(12-13), 949-963. doi:10.1055/a-1533-0021  

Unlike those of coffee beans, the healthy properties of coffee leaves have been overlooked for a long time, even if they are consumed as a beverage by local communities of several African countries. Due to the presence of xanthines, diterpenes, xanthones, and several other polyphenol derivatives as main secondary metabolites, coffee leaves might be useful to prevent many daily disorders. At the same time, as for all bioactive molecules, careless use of coffee leaf infusions may be unsafe due to their adverse effects, such as the excessive stimulant effects on the central nervous system or their interactions with other concomitantly administered drugs. Moreover, the presence of some toxic diterpene derivatives requires careful analytical controls on manufactured products made with coffee leaves. Accordingly, knowledge about the properties of coffee leaves needs to be increased to know if they might be considered a good source for producing new supplements. The purpose of the present review is to highlight the biosynthesis, metabolism, and distribution of the 4 main classes of secondary metabolites present in coffee leaves, their main pharmacological and toxicological aspects, and their main roles in planta. Differences in coffee leaf chemical composition depending on the coffee species will also be carefully considered.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/336599/4/a-1533-0021.pdfhttps://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/336599/3/a-1533-0021.pdf

 

Untargeted metabolomics approach to discriminate mistletoe commercial products

Vanhaverbeke, C., Touboul, D., Elie, N., Prévost, M., Meunier, C. C., Michelland, S. S., Cunin, V. V., Ma, L., Vermijlen, D., Delporte, C., Pochet, S., Le Gouellec, A. A., Sève, M. M., Van Antwerpen, P., & Souard, F. (2021). Untargeted metabolomics approach to discriminate mistletoe commercial products. Scientific report, 11, 10.1038/s41598-021-93255-z, 14205.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/325964/3/Vanhaverbeke_et_al_revised.pdf

 

Acute effects of hypouricemia on endothelium, oxidative stress, and arterial stiffness: A randomized, double‐blind, crossover study

De Becker, B., Hupkens, E., Dewachter, L., Coremans, C., Delporte, C., Van Antwerpen, P., Franck, T., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Cullus, P., & Van De Borne, P. (2021). Acute effects of hypouricemia on endothelium, oxidative stress, and arterial stiffness: A randomized, double‐blind, crossover study. Physiological Reports, 9(17). doi:10.14814/phy2.15018  

We hypothesized acute moderate and drastic reductions in uric acid concentration exert different effects on arterial function in healthy normotensive and hypertensive adults. Thirty-six adults (aged 58 [55;63] years) with or without primary hypertension participated in a three-way, randomized, double-blind, crossover study in which [placebo] and [febuxostat] and [febuxostat and rasburicase] were administered. Febuxostat and rasburicase reduce the uric acid concentration by xanthine oxidoreductase inhibition and uric acid degradation into allantoin, respectively. Endothelial function was assessed in response to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, heating (with and without nitric oxide synthase inhibition) using a laser Doppler imager. Arterial stiffness was determined by applanation tonometry, together with blood pressure, renin-angiotensin system activity, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Uric acid concentration was 5.1 [4.1;5.9], 1.9 [1.2;2.2] and 0.2 [0.2;0.3] mg/dL with [placebo], [febuxostat] and [febuxostat-rasburicase] treatments, respectively (p < 0.0001). Febuxostat improved endothelial response to heat particularly when nitric oxide synthase was inhibited (p < 0.05) and reduced diastolic and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.008 and 0.02, respectively). The augmentation index decreased with febuxostat (ANOVA p < 0.04). Myeloperoxidase activity profoundly decreased with febuxostat combined with rasburicase (p < 0.0001). When uric acid dropped, plasmatic antioxidant capacity markedly decreased, while superoxide dismutase activity increased (p < 0.0001). Other inflammatory and oxidant markers did not differ. Acute moderate hypouricemia encompasses minor improvements in endothelial function, blood pressure, and arterial stiffness. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT03395977, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03395977.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/330908/3/phy2.15018.pdf

 

Determination of the quality of metronidazole formulations by near-infrared spectrophotometric analysis

SAKIRA, A. K., Mees, C., De Braekeleer, K., Delporte, C., Yameogo, J., YABRE, M., Some, T. I., Van Antwerpen, P., Mertens, D., & Kauffmann, J.-M. (2021). Determination of the quality of metronidazole formulations by near-infrared spectrophotometric analysis. Talanta Open, 3, 100027. doi:10.1016/j.talo.2020.100027  

In the quality control of medicines and the fight against the phenomenon of poor quality medicines, there is an urgent need for rapid and broad spectrum methods for screening these types of medicines. In the present work, we have used near infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis to develop chemometric models for the classification and quantification of metronidazole in Burkina Faso pharmaceutical formulations. For this purpose, drug samples were collected in drugstores located in different Burkina Faso border zones. Four product classes were defined based on the national nomenclature: 3 classes for the generic drugs (C1, C3, and C4) and one class for the reference (C2) drugs. The exploratory analysis using PCA identified two clusters of drugs within class C1. Discrimination was confirmed by the developed and optimised DD-SIMCA model, with only one target class. The quality control of the samples from product class C1 was proven to be very satisfactory with specificities and sensitivities of 100%. The quantification models developed with the PLS-R method were successfully applied for the determination of the active ingredient content in the samples, with acceptable relative bias between 0.15 and 12.7 % with respect to the dose determined by the HPLC method. The RMSEC was estimated at 13.57 (R2, 0.9937), the RMSECV at 18.07 (R2, 0.9888) and the RMSEP at 13.69 (R2, 0.9941).The models developed and the results obtained are promising for routine quality control of similar formulations of metronidazole.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/360129/1/doi_343773.pdf

 

Mass Spectrometry for the Monitoring of Lipoprotein Oxidations by Myeloperoxidase in Cardiovascular Diseases.

Coremans, C., Delporte, C., Cotton, F., Van De Borne, P., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., & Van Antwerpen, P. (2021). Mass Spectrometry for the Monitoring of Lipoprotein Oxidations by Myeloperoxidase in Cardiovascular Diseases. Molecules, 26(17). doi:10.3390/molecules26175264  

Oxidative modifications of HDLs and LDLs by myeloperoxidase (MPO) are regularly mentioned in the context of atherosclerosis. The enzyme adsorbs on protein moieties and locally produces oxidizing agents to modify specific residues on apolipoproteins A-1 and B-100. Oxidation of lipoproteins by MPO (Mox) leads to dysfunctional Mox-HDLs associated with cholesterol-efflux deficiency, and Mox-LDLs that are no more recognized by the LDL receptor and become proinflammatory. Several modification sites on apoA-1 and B-100 that are specific to MPO activity are described in the literature, which seem relevant in patients with cardiovascular risk. The most appropriate analytical method to assess these modifications is based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It enables the oxidized forms of apoA-1and apoB-100 to be quantified in serum, in parallel to a quantification of these apolipoproteins. Current standard methods to quantify apolipoproteins are based on immunoassays that are well standardized with good analytical performances despite the cost and the heterogeneity of the commercialized kits. Mass spectrometry can provide simultaneous measurements of quantity and quality of apolipoproteins, while being antibody-independent and directly detecting peptides carrying modifications for Mox-HDLs and Mox-LDLs. Therefore, mass spectrometry is a potential and reliable alternative for apolipoprotein quantitation.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/342823/1/doi_326467.pdf

 

Analysis of Glycoproteins by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy: Comparative Assessment.

Derenne, A., Derfoufi, K.-M., Cowper, B., Delporte, C., Butré, C. C., & Goormaghtigh, E. (2021). Analysis of Glycoproteins by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy: Comparative Assessment. Methods in molecular biology, 2271, 361-374. doi:10.1007/978-1-0716-1241-5_25  

FTIR spectroscopy has been widely used to characterize biopharmaceuticals for many years, in particular to analyze protein structure. More recently, it was demonstrated to be a useful tool to study and compare protein samples in terms of glycosylation. Based on a spectral region specific to carbohydrate absorption, we present here a detailed protocol to compare the FTIR spectra of glycoproteins in terms of global glycosylation level and in terms of glycan composition. This FTIR information is compared to MS information. Both approaches yield consistent results but it appears FTIR analysis is easier and more rapid to perform comparisons.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/326180/3/Article_soumis.docx

 

Fc Glycosylation Characterization of Human Immunoglobulins G Using Immunocapture and LC-MS.

Helali, Y., Sharma, S., Vandeput, M., Welba, D., Van Antwerpen, P., Marchant, A., & Delporte, C. (2021). Fc Glycosylation Characterization of Human Immunoglobulins G Using Immunocapture and LC-MS. Methods in molecular biology, 2271, 57-71. doi:10.1007/978-1-0716-1241-5_4  

Immunoglobulins G (IgG) are proteins produced by the immune system of higher life forms that play a central role in the defense against microbial pathogens. IgG bind pathogens with the hypervariable Fab component and mediate a diversity of effector functions by binding to immune effector cells via their crystallizable (Fc) component. All IgG Fc carry a polymorphic N-glycan that regulates its binding properties and thereby its effector functions. The glycosylation profile of IgG Fc is modulated by physiological and pathological conditions, including infectious diseases and inflammatory disorders. Characterization of IgG Fc glycosylation profiles is a promising approach to understand the pathogenesis of diseases involving the immune system and to develop novel biomarkers of disease activity. Measuring the proportion of the different IgG Fc glycoforms remains an analytical challenge, that requires a sensitive and reproducible analytical approach.This chapter describes an optimized approach for the preparation and the analysis of Fc N-glycans from total serum or plasma IgG using magnetic beads, RapiFluor MS label©, and LC-MS.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/326173/3/Copy_HY_Final_CD.docx

 

Evaluation of Cocoa Bean Shell Antimicrobial Activity: A Tentative Assay Using a Metabolomic Approach for Active Compound Identification

Rojo Poveda, O., Oliveira Ribeiro, S., Anton Sales, C., Keymeulen, F., Barbosa-Pereira, L., Delporte, C., Zeppa, G., & Stévigny, C. (2021). Evaluation of Cocoa Bean Shell Antimicrobial Activity: A Tentative Assay Using a Metabolomic Approach for Active Compound Identification. Planta medica, 9. doi:10.1055/a-1499-7829  

Cocoa bean shell (CBS) is one of the main by-products of chocolate manufacturing and possesses several compounds with biofunctionalities. It can function as an antibacterial agent, and its action is mostly reported against Streptococcus mutans. However, only a few studies have investigated the CBS compounds responsible for this activity. This study aimed to evaluate several extracts of CBSs from different geographical origins and cocoa varieties and estimate their antimicrobial properties against different fungal and bacterial strains by determining their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results demonstrated antimicrobial activity of CBS against one of the tested strains, S. mutans. CBS extracts were further analysed via liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for untargeted metabolomic analysis. LC-HRMS data were analysed (pre-processing and statistical analyses) using the Workflow4Metabolomics platform. The latter enabled us to identify possible compounds responsible for the detected antimicrobial activity by comparing the more and less active extracts. Active extracts were not the most abundant in polyphenols but contained higher concentrations of two metabolites. After tentative annotation of these metabolites, one of them was identified and confirmed to be 7-methylxanthine. When tested alone, 7-methylxanthine did not display antibacterial activity. However, a possible cocktail effect due to the synergistic activity of this molecule along with other compounds in the CBS extracts cannot be neglected. In conclusion, CBS could be a functional ingredient with benefits for human health as it exhibited antibacterial activity against S. mutans. However, the antimicrobial mechanisms still need to be confirmed.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/323899/3/CBSAntimicrobialROJOPOVEDAetal.pdf

 

Effects of hyperoxia and cardiovascular risk factors on myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury : a randomized, sham-controlled parallel study

Acheampong, A., Melot, C., Benjelloun, M., Cheval, M., Reye, F., Delporte, C., Van Antwerpen, P., Franck, T., McEntee, K., & Van De Borne, P. (2021). Effects of hyperoxia and cardiovascular risk factors on myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury : a randomized, sham-controlled parallel study. Experimental physiology, 106, 1249-1262.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/322615/3/article.pdf

 

2020

Polyphenolic and Methylxanthine Bioaccessibility of Cocoa Bean Shell Functional Biscuits: Metabolomics Approach and Intestinal Permeability through Caco-2 Cell Models

Rojo Poveda, O., Barbosa-Pereira, L., El Khattabi, C., Youl, E. N. H., Bertolino, M. M., Delporte, C., Pochet, S., & Stévigny, C. (2020). Polyphenolic and Methylxanthine Bioaccessibility of Cocoa Bean Shell Functional Biscuits: Metabolomics Approach and Intestinal Permeability through Caco-2 Cell Models. Antioxidants, 9(11), 1164, 21. doi:10.3390/antiox9111164  

Cocoa bean shell (CBS), a by-product with considerable concentrations of bioactive compounds and proven biofunctional potential, has been demonstrated to be a suitable ingredient for high-fiber functional biscuits adapted to diabetic consumers. In this work, the in vitro bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption of polyphenols and methylxanthines contained in these biscuits were evaluated, and the effect of the food matrix was studied. Biscuits containing CBS and the CBS alone underwent in vitro digestion followed by an intestinal permeability study. The results confirmed that compounds were less bioavailable in the presence of a food matrix, although the digestion contributed to their release from this matrix, increasing the concentrations available at the intestinal level and making them capable of promoting antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. After digestion, CBS biscuits were shown to possess a-glucosidase inhibition capacity comparable to that of acarbose. Moreover, the presence of the food matrix improved the stability of polyphenols throughout the digestion process. Intestinal absorption of flavan-3-ols seemed to be limited to a maximum threshold and was therefore independent of the sample, while procyanidin was not absorbed. Methylxanthine absorption was high and was boosted by the presence of the food matrix. The results confirmed the biofunctional potential of CBS-based biscuits.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/314522/3/Rojo-Poveda2020.pdf

 

FTIR spectroscopy as an analytical tool to compare glycosylation in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

Derenne, A., Derfoufi, K.-M., Cowper, B., Delporte, C., & Goormaghtigh, E. (2020). FTIR spectroscopy as an analytical tool to compare glycosylation in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Analytica chimica acta, 1112, 62-71. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2020.03.038  

Glycosylation is the most common protein post-translational modification (PTM), especially in biopharmaceuticals. It is a critical quality attribute as it impacts product solubility, stability, half-life, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD), bioactivity and safety (e.g. immunogenicity). Yet, current glycan analysis methods involve multiple and lengthy sample preparation steps which can affect the robustness of the analyses. The development of orthogonal, direct and simple method is therefore desirable. In this study, we suggest use of FTIR spectroscopy to address this challenge. Use of this technique, combined with statistical tools, to compare samples or batches in terms of glycosylation or monosaccharide profile, has three potential applications: to compare glycosylation of a biosimilar and the original (innovator) molecule, for monitoring of batch-to-batch consistency, and for in-process control. Fourteen therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), one Fc-fusion protein and several other common glycoproteins have been used to demonstrate that FTIR spectra of glycoproteins display spectral variations according to their glycan and monosaccharide compositions. We show that FTIR spectra of glycoproteins provide a global but accurate fingerprint of the glycosylation profile. This fingerprint is not only sensitive to large differences such as the presence or absence of several monosaccharides but also to smaller modifications of the glycan and monosaccharide content.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/308753/3/ACA-19-2583R2.pdf

 

A new potential anti‐cancer beta‐carboline derivative decreases the expression levels of key proteins involved in glioma aggressiveness: A proteomic investigation

De Carvalho, A., Viaene, J., Vandenbussche, G., De Braekeleer, K., Masereel, B., Wouters, J., Souard, F., Vander Heyden, Y., Van Antwerpen, P., Delporte, C., & Mathieu, V. (2020). A new potential anti‐cancer beta‐carboline derivative decreases the expression levels of key proteins involved in glioma aggressiveness: A proteomic investigation. Drug development research, 8(1), 32-42. doi:10.1002/ddr.21600  

Gliomas remain highly fatal due to their high resistance to current therapies. Deregulation of protein synthesis contributes to cancer onset and progression and is a source of rising interest for new drugs. CM16, a harmine derivative with predicted high blood-brain barrier penetration, exerts antiproliferative effects partly through translation inhibition. We evaluated herein how CM16 alters the proteome of glioma cells. The analysis of the gel-free LC/MS and auto-MS/MS data showed that CM16 induces time- and concentration-dependent significant changes in the total ion current chromatograms. In addition, we observed spontaneous clustering of the samples according to their treatment condition and their proper classification by unsupervised and supervised analyses, respectively. A two-dimensional gel-based approach analysis allowed us to identify that treatment with CM16 may downregulate four key proteins involved in glioma aggressiveness and associated with poor patient survival (HspB1, BTF3, PGAM1, and cofilin), while it may upregulate galectin-1 and Ebp1. Consistently with the protein synthesis inhibition properties of CM16, HspB1, Ebp1, and BTF3 exert known roles in protein synthesis. In conclusion, the downregulation of HspB1, BTF3, PGAM1 and cofilin bring new insights in CM16 antiproliferative effects, further supporting CM16 as an interesting protein synthesis inhibitor to combat glioma.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/300476/3/submitted_manuscript.pdf

 

2019

Severe Hypouricemia Impairs Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilatation and Reduces Blood Pressure in Healthy Young Men: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, and Crossover Study.

De Becker, B., Coremans, C., Chaumont, M., Delporte, C., Van Antwerpen, P., Franck, T., Rousseau, A., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Cullus, P., & Van De Borne, P. (2019). Severe Hypouricemia Impairs Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilatation and Reduces Blood Pressure in Healthy Young Men: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, and Crossover Study. Journal of the American Heart Association, 8(23), e013130. doi:10.1161/JAHA.119.013130  

Background Uric acid (UA) is a plasmatic antioxidant that has possible effects on blood pressure. The effects of UA on endothelial function are unclear. We hypothesize that endothelial function is not impaired unless significant UA depletion is achieved through selective xanthine oxidase inhibition with febuxostat and recombinant uricase (rasburicase). Methods and Results Microvascular hyperemia, induced by iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, and heating-induced local hyperemia after iontophoresis of saline and a specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor were assessed by laser Doppler imaging. Blood pressure and renin-angiotensin system markers were measured, and arterial stiffness was assessed. CRP (C-reactive protein), allantoin, chlorotyrosine/tyrosine ratio, homocitrulline/lysine ratio, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde, and interleukin-8 were used to characterize inflammation and oxidative stress. Seventeen young healthy men were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover study. The 3 compared conditions were placebo, febuxostat alone, and febuxostat together with rasburicase. The allantoin (μmol/L)/UA (μmol/L) ratio differed between sessions (P<0.0001). During the febuxostat-rasburicase session, heating-induced hyperemia became altered in the presence of nitric oxide synthase inhibition; and systolic blood pressure, angiotensin II, and myeloperoxidase activity decreased (P≤0.03 versus febuxostat). The aldosterone concentration decreased in the febuxostat-rasburicase group (P=0.01). Malondialdehyde increased when UA concentration decreased (both P<0.01 for febuxostat and febuxostat-rasburicase versus placebo). Other parameters remained unchanged. Conclusions A large and short-term decrease in UA in humans alters heat-induced endothelium-dependent microvascular vasodilation, slightly reduces systolic blood pressure through renin-angiotensin system activity reduction, and markedly reduces myeloperoxidase activity when compared with moderate UA reduction. A moderate or severe hypouricemia leads to an increase in lipid peroxidation through loss of antioxidant capacity of plasma. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03395977.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/296140/3/JAHA.119.013130.pdf

 

Dysregulation of Macropinocytosis Processes in Glioblastomas May Be Exploited to Increase Intracellular Anti-Cancer Drug Levels: The Example of Temozolomide

Colin, M., Delporte, C., Janky, R., Lechon, A.-S., Renard, G. G., Van Antwerpen, P., Maltese, W., & Mathieu, V. (2019). Dysregulation of Macropinocytosis Processes in Glioblastomas May Be Exploited to Increase Intracellular Anti-Cancer Drug Levels: The Example of Temozolomide. Cancers (Basel), 11(3), 411.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/285704/3/cancers-11-00411-v2.pdf

 

Validation of a LC/MSMS method for simultaneous quantification of 9 nucleotides in biological matrices.

Cortese, M., Delporte, C., Dufour, D., Noyon, C., Chaumont, M., De Becker, B., Reye, F., Rousseau, A., Eker, O. F., Neve, J., Piagnerelli, M., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Robaye, B., & Van Antwerpen, P. (2019). Validation of a LC/MSMS method for simultaneous quantification of 9 nucleotides in biological matrices. Talanta, 193, 206-214. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2018.10.003  

Nucleotides play a role in inflammation processes: cAMP and cGMP in the endothelial barrier function, ADP in platelet aggregation, ATP and UTP in vasodilatation and/or vasoconstriction of blood vessels, UDP in macrophages activation. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a LC/MS-MS method able to quantify simultaneously nine nucleotides (AMP, cAMP, ADP, ATP, GMP, cGMP, UMP, UDP and UTP) in biological matrixes (cells and plasma). The method we developed, has lower LOQ's than others and has the main advantage to quantify all nucleotides within one single injection in less than 10 min. The measured nucleotides concentrations obtained with this method are similar to those obtained with assay kits commercially available. Analysis of plasma and red blood cells from healthy donors permits to estimate the physiological concentration of those nucleotides in human plasma and red blood cells, such information being poorly available in the literature. Furthermore, the protocol presented in this paper allowed us to observe that AMP, ADP, ATP concentrations are modified in human red blood cells and plasma after a venous stasis of 4 min compared to physiological blood circulation. Therefore, this specific method enables future studies on nucleotides implications in chronic inflammatory diseases but also in other pathologies where nucleotides are implicated in.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/279697/1/Elsevier_263324.pdf

 

2018

Determination of three main chlorogenic acids in water extracts of coffee leaves by liquid chromatography coupled to an electrochemical detector

Rodríguez-Gómez, R., Vanheuverzwjin, J., Souard, F., Delporte, C., Stévigny, C., Stoffelen, P., De Braekeleer, K., & Kauffmann, J.-M. (2018). Determination of three main chlorogenic acids in water extracts of coffee leaves by liquid chromatography coupled to an electrochemical detector. Antioxidants, 7(10), 143. doi:10.3390/antiox7100143  

Coffee is a beverage widely consumed in the world. The coffee species most commercialized worldwide are Arabica (Coffea arabica) and Robusta (Coffea canephora). Roasted coffee beans are the most used, but coffee leaves are also consumed as infusion in several countries for traditional medicinal purposes. They contain several interesting phenolic antioxidant compounds mainly belonging to chlorogenic acids (CGAs). In the present work, a liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (LC-EC) method was developed for the determination of three main chlorogenic acid isomers, namely 3-, 4-, and 5-caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), in coffee leaves aqueous extracts. Samples from eight coffee species, namely; Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora, Coffea liberica, Coffea humilis, Coffea mannii, Coffea charrieriana, Coffea anthonyi, and Coffea liberica var. liberica, were grown and collected in tropical greenhouses. Linearity of the calibration graphs was observed in the range from the limit of quantification to 1.0 × 10−5 M, with R2 equal to 99.9% in all cases. High sensitivity was achieved with a limit of detection of 1.0 × 10−8 M for 3-CQA and 5-CQA (i.e., 3.5 µg/L) and 2.0 × 10−8 M for 4-CQA (i.e., 7.1 µg/L). The chromatographic profile of the samples harvested for each Coffea species was studied comparatively. Obtained raw data were pretreated for baseline variations and shifts in retention times between the chromatographic profiles. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the pretreated data. According to the results, three clusters of Coffea species were found. In the water sample extracts, 5-CQA appeared to be the major isomer, and some species contained a very low amount of CQAs. Fluctuations were observed depending on the Coffea species and harvesting period. Significant differences between January and July were noticed regarding CQAs content. The species with the best CQAs/caffeine ratio was identified. The LC-EC data were validated by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS).

 

Myeloperoxidase promotes tube formation, triggers ERK1/2 and Akt pathways and is expressed endogenously in endothelial cells

Khalil, A., Medfai, H., Poelvoorde, P., Fayyad Kazan, M., Delporte, C., Van Antwerpen, P., EL-Makhour, Y., Biston, P., Delrée, P., Badran, B., Vanhamme, L., & Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K. (2018). Myeloperoxidase promotes tube formation, triggers ERK1/2 and Akt pathways and is expressed endogenously in endothelial cells. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 654, 55-69. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2018.07.011  

Myeloperoxidase is a member of the mammalian peroxidase family, mainly expressed in the myeloblastic cell lineage. It is considered a major bactericidal agent as it is released in the phagosome where it catalyzes the formation of reactive oxygen species. It is also released in the extracellular spaces including blood where it is absorbed on (lipo)proteins and endothelial cell surface, interfering with endothelial function. We performed RNA sequencing on MPO-treated endothelial cells, analyzed their transcriptome and validated the profile of gene expression by individual qRT-PCR. Some of the induced genes could be grouped in several functional networks, including tubulogenesis, angiogenesis, and blood vessel morphogenesis and development as well as signal transduction pathways associated to these mechanisms. MPO treatment mimicked the effects of VEGF on several signal transduction pathways, such as Akt, ERK or FAK involved in angiogenesis. Accordingly MPO, independently of its enzymatic activity, stimulated tube formation by endothelial cells. RNA interference also pointed at a role of endogenous MPO in tubulogenesis and endothelium wound repair in vitro. These data suggest that MPO, whether from endogenous or exogenous sources, could play a role in angiogenesis and vascular repair in vivo.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/278276/1/Elsevier_261903.pdf

 

Myeloperoxidase et Volume Prostatique: étude préliminaire

Roumeguere, T., Van Antwerpen, P., Vanhamme, L., Delporte, C., Rousseau, A., Wespes, E., Vanhaeverbeek, M., & Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K. (2018). Myeloperoxidase et Volume Prostatique: étude préliminaire. Progrès en urologie, 28(10), 482-487. doi:10.1016/j.purol.2018.06.004  

Objectives: Oxidative stress is associated with the development of BPH and might be modulated by several factors. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) has recently been observed in prostate tissue. Our goal was to investigate the correlation between MPO and the prostate volume. Material and methods: Hundred and twenty-one patients (48-70 years) with a filled IPSS were prospectively included. Blood sampling (PSA, testosterone, Angiotensin II (AngII), MPO, Mox-LDL) and transrectal ultrasound of the prostate were performed with total volume (TV) and transitional zone volume (TZ) measurements. For correlation, univariate analyses were depicted by Pearson's coefficient. Multilinear regression analysis used a stepwise backward selection of the explicative variables. Results: In multivariate analysis, the TV was positively correlated to the combination of age and Ang II but negatively to MPO specific activity (Std Coef = −0.272, P = 0.004). Significant correlations were confirmed between TZ, age and MPO specific activity but not with Ang II. A negative correlation between TZ and MPO specific activity was also observed (Std Coef = −0.21, P = 0.016). No correlation was found with Mox-LDL. Conclusions: Negative correlation between MPO and prostate volume was observed but careful interpretations may be endorsed and longitudinal study is necessary. It seems relevant to focus on the potential contribution of MPO in the development of prostatic diseases as this enzyme can also promote DNA oxidation. Level of evidence: 4.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/278681/1/Elsevier_262308.pdf

 

Electrochemical studies of ethoxyquin and its determination in salmon samples by flow injection analysis with an amperometric dual detector

Vandeput, M., Rodríguez-Gómez, R., Izere, A.-M., Zafra-Gomez, A., De Braekeleer, K., Delporte, C., Van Antwerpen, P., & Kauffmann, J.-M. (2018). Electrochemical studies of ethoxyquin and its determination in salmon samples by flow injection analysis with an amperometric dual detector. Electroanalysis, 30(30), 1293-1302. doi:10.1002/elan.201700611  

Ethoxyquin (EQ) is an antioxidant widely used in the food industry. Some concerns for human health have been reported since its utilization in animal feed may lead to residues in human food such as salmon samples. This work aimed to investigate the electrochemical behavior of EQ and its major oxidation products namely a dimer of EQ (EQDM) and ethoxyquin quinone imine (EQI) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) at a carbon screen printed electrode (cSPE). The stability of these products and their reactivity against glutathione (GSH) were also studied. Oxidized products and thiol adducts were identified by a microelectrolysis of an EQ solution onto a cSPE in the absence and in the presence of GSH. The products were analyzed off-line, by liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (LC-MS). One of the generated product (EQI) was shown to be highly reactive towards GSH. Based on the redox pattern of EQ, a flow injection analysis with a dual cSPE was developed in order to detect in a rapid manner EQ in salmon samples. Since matrix effects were observed, matrix-matched calibration curves with spiked samples were built. A linear response was obtained between 20-100 μM and a limit of detection (LOD) of 7.5 μM (8.2 mg/kg of salmon). Trueness was assessed with recovery assays at three levels of concentration. The recovery was close to 100 %. Precision was determined as RSD (%) with values lower than 6 % in all cases.

 

The other myeloperoxidase: Emerging functions

Vanhamme, L., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Van Antwerpen, P., & Delporte, C. (2018). The other myeloperoxidase: Emerging functions. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 649, 1-14. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2018.03.037  

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a member of the mammalian peroxidase family. It is mainly expressed in neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages. As a catalyzer of reactive oxidative species and radical species formation, it contributes to neutrophil bactericidal activity. Nevertheless MPO invalidation does not seem to have major health consequences in affected individuals. This suggests that MPO might have alternative functions supporting its conservation during evolution. We will review the available data supporting these non-canonical functions in terms of tissue specific expression, function and enzymatic activity. Thus, we discuss its cell type specific expression. We review in between others its roles in angiogenesis, endothelial (dys-) function, immune reaction, and inflammation. We summarize its pathological actions in clinical conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/272879/1/Elsevier_256506.pdf

 

Data on myeloperoxidase-oxidized low-density lipoproteins stimulation of cells to induce release of resolvin-D1

Dufour, D., Khalil, A., Nuyens, V., Rousseau, A., Delporte, C., Noyon, C., Cortese, M., Reye, F., Pireaux, V., Neve, J., Vanhamme, L., Robaye, B., Lelubre, C., Desmet, J.-M., Raes, M., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., & Van Antwerpen, P. (2018). Data on myeloperoxidase-oxidized low-density lipoproteins stimulation of cells to induce release of resolvin-D1. Data in Brief, 18, 1160-1171. doi:10.1016/j.dib.2018.03.131  

This article present data related to the publication entitled “Native and myeloperoxidase-oxidized low-density lipoproteins act in synergy to induce release of resolvin-D1 from endothelial cells” (Dufour et al., 2018). The supporting materials include results obtained by Mox-LDLs stimulated macrophages and investigation performed on scavenger receptors. Linear regressions (RvD1 vs age of mice and RvD1 vs CL-Tyr/Tyr) and Data related to validation were also presented. The interpretation of these data and further extensive insights can be found in Dufour et al. (2018) [1].

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/278262/4/doi_261889.pdf

 

Native and myeloperoxidase-oxidized low-density lipoproteins act in synergy to induce release of resolvin-D1 from endothelial cells.

Dufour, D., Khalil, A., Nuyens, V., Rousseau, A., Delporte, C., Noyon, C., Cortese, M., Reye, F., Pireaux, V., Neve, J., Vanhamme, L., Robaye, B., Lelubre, C., Desmet, J.-M., Raes, M., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., & Van Antwerpen, P. (2018). Native and myeloperoxidase-oxidized low-density lipoproteins act in synergy to induce release of resolvin-D1 from endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis, 272, 108-117. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.03.012  

Oxidation of native low-density lipoproteins (LDLs-nat) plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. A major player in LDL-nat oxidation is myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme enzyme present in azurophil granules of neutrophils and monocytes. MPO produces oxidized LDLs called Mox-LDLs, which cause a pro-inflammatory response in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC), monocyte/macrophage activation and formation of foam cells. Resolvin D1 (RvD1) is a compound derived from the metabolism of the polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA, which promotes resolution of inflammation at the ng/ml level.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/271175/1/Elsevier_254802.pdf

 

Metabolomics fingerprint of coffee species determined by untargeted-profiling study using LC-HRMS

Souard, F., Delporte, C., Stoffelen, P., Thévenot, E. E., Noret, N., Dauvergne, B., Kauffmann, J.-M., Van Antwerpen, P., & Stévigny, C. (2018). Metabolomics fingerprint of coffee species determined by untargeted-profiling study using LC-HRMS. Food chemistry, 245, 603-612. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.10.022  

Coffee bean extracts are consumed all over the world as beverage and there is a growing interest in coffee leaf extracts as food supplements. The wild diversity in Coffea (Rubiaceae) genus is large and could offer new opportunities and challenges. In the present work, a metabolomics approach was implemented to examine leaf chemical composition of 9 Coffea species grown in the same environmental conditions. Leaves were analyzed by LC-HRMS and a comprehensive statistical workflow was designed. It served for univariate hypothesis testing and multivariate modeling by PCA and partial PLS-DA on the Workflow4Metabolomics infrastructure. The first two axes of PCA and PLS-DA describes more than 40% of variances with good values of explained variances. This strategy permitted to investigate the metabolomics data and their relation with botanic and genetic informations. Finally, the identification of several key metabolites for the discrimination between species was further characterized.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/261814/1/Elsevier_245441.pdf

 

Myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation of cyanide to cyanate: A potential carbamylation route involved in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques?

Delporte, C., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Furtmueller, P. G., Maki, R., Dieu, M., Noyon, C., Soudi, M., Dufour, D., Coremans, C., Nuyens, V., Reye, F., Rousseau, A., Raes, M., Moguilevsky, N., Vanhaeverbeek, M., Ducobu, J., Neve, J., Robaye, B., Vanhamme, L., Reynolds, W., Obinger, C., & Van Antwerpen, P. (2018). Myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation of cyanide to cyanate: A potential carbamylation route involved in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques? The Journal of biological chemistry. doi:10.1074/jbc.M117.801076  

Protein carbamylation by cyanate is a post-translational modification associated with several (patho)physiological conditions, including cardiovascular disorders. However, the biochemical pathways leading to protein carbamylation are incompletely characterized. This work demonstrates that the heme protein myeloperoxidase, which is secreted at high concentrations at inflammatory sites from stimulated neutrophils and monocytes, is able to catalyze the two-electron oxidation of cyanide to cyanate and promote the carbamylation of taurine, lysine and low-density-lipoproteins. We probed the role of cyanide as both electron donor and low-spin ligand by pre-steady-state and steady-state kinetic analyses and analyzed reaction products by MS. Moreover, we present two further pathways of carbamylation that involve reaction products of MPO, namely oxidation of cyanide by hypochlorous acid and reaction of thiocyanate with chloramines. Finally, using an in vivo approach with mice on a high fat diet and carrying human MPO gene, we found that during chronic exposure to cyanide, mimicking exposure to pollution and smoking, MPO promotes protein-bound accumulation of carbamyllysine (homo-citrulline) in atheroma plaque, demonstrating a link between cyanide exposure and atheroma. In summary, our findings indicate that cyanide is a substrate for MPO and suggest an additional pathway for in vivo cyanate formation and protein carbamylation that involves MPO either directly or via its reaction products hypochlorous acid or chloramines. They also suggest that chronic cyanide exposure could promote the accumulation of carbamylated proteins in atherosclerotic plaques.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/268604/4/doi_252231.pdf

 

High Wattage E-cigarettes Induce Tissue Hypoxia and Lower Airway Injury: A Randomized Trial.

Chaumont, M., Bernard, A., Pochet, S., Melot, C., El Khattabi, C., Reye, F., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Van Antwerpen, P., Delporte, C., & Van De Borne, P. (2018). High Wattage E-cigarettes Induce Tissue Hypoxia and Lower Airway Injury: A Randomized Trial. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. doi:10.1164/rccm.201711-2198LE  

 

2017

Batch-to-batch N-glycosylation Study of Infliximab, Trastuzumab, and Bevacizumab, and Stability Study of Bevacizumab

Planinc, A., Dejaegher, B., Vander Heyden, Y., Viaene, J., Van Praet, S., Rappez, F., Van Antwerpen, P., & Delporte, C. (2017). Batch-to-batch N-glycosylation Study of Infliximab, Trastuzumab, and Bevacizumab, and Stability Study of Bevacizumab. European journal of hospital pharmacy, 24(5), 286-292. doi:10.1136/ejhpharm-2016-001022  

Objectives Infliximab, trastuzumab and bevacizumab are among the most frequently prescribed therapeutic proteins, and like most other therapeutic proteins, are glycosylated. As differences in glycosylation may significantly change the safety and efficacy of therapeutic glycoproteins, it is extremely important to control N-glycosylation consistency. In the first part of this study, the batch-to-batch consistency of the N-glycosylation of infliximab, trastuzumab and bevacizumab was analysed. In the second part, the consistency of the N-glycosylation of bevacizumab stored in polycarbonate syringes (for off-label drug use) for 3 months was examined. Methods N-glycans were (i) enzymatically released using peptide-N-glycosidase F, (ii) reduced, and (iii) analysed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry data were interpreted using principal component analysis combined with two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests. The biological activity of infliximab and trastuzumab was examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results The results of both studies make important contributions to the field of hospital pharmacy. All batches of the studied therapeutic glycoproteins (infliximab, trastuzumab and bevacizumab) varied considerably (especially in galactosylation), while the N-glycosylation of bevacizumab remained unchanged during 3-month storage. Conclusions Threshold values for batch-to-batch N-glycosylation variations should be established and batch-to-batch glycosylation consistency should be regularly tested. In our study, samples with significantly different N-glycosylation profiles showed no significant variations in biological activity, suggesting that the differences are probably not therapeutically significant.

 

The waste of saffron crop, a cheap source of bioactive compounds

Lahmass, I., Lamkami, T., Delporte, C., Sikdar, S., Van Antwerpen, P., Saalaoui, E., & Megalizzi, V. (2017). The waste of saffron crop, a cheap source of bioactive compounds. Journal of Functional Foods, 35, 341-351. doi:10.1016/j.jff.2017.05.057  

The present study aimed to estimate the biological valorization potential of food saffron by-products through biological activities of phenol content in alcoholic and ethyl acetate extracts of five by-products of Crocus sativus L.: leaves, tepals, spaths, corm, and tunics. The results evidence the presence of products with bioactive capacities in cheap by-products like spaths, leaves and corms. The LC-MS/MS analysis showed methanolic fraction of stigmas contained as major products the crocins while fractions of spaths and leaves contained predominantly flavonoids. We also showed the presence of flavonols and flavones which exhibit antioxidant capacities, activate proteasome in human dermal fibroblast cells from aged donors and inhibit the growth and proteasome activity of cancer cells. Altogether, our data indicate that compounds present in saffron's by-products, such as the leaves or spaths, might be valuable for food valorization and should be studied as a useful biological product for its anti-aging and anti-cancer abilities.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/253865/3/Elsevier_237492.pdf

 

LC-MS analysis combined with principal component analysis and soft independent modelling by class analogy for a better detection of changes in N-glycosylation profiles of therapeutic glycoproteins.

Planinc, A., Dejaegher, B., Vander Heyden, Y., Viaene, J., Van Praet, S., Rappez, F., Van Antwerpen, P., & Delporte, C. (2017). LC-MS analysis combined with principal component analysis and soft independent modelling by class analogy for a better detection of changes in N-glycosylation profiles of therapeutic glycoproteins. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. doi:10.1007/s00216-016-9683-9  

Therapeutic proteins are among the top selling drugs in the pharmaceutical industry. More than 60 % of the approved therapeutic proteins are glycosylated. Nowadays, it is well accepted that changes in glycosylation may affect the safety and the efficacy of the therapeutic proteins. For this reason, it is important to characterize both the protein and the glycan structures. In this study, analytical and data processing methods were developed ensuring an easier characterization of glycoprofiles. N-glycans were (i) enzymatically released using peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F), (ii) reduced, and (iii) analyzed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer (HILIC-HRMS). Glycosylation changes were analyzed in human plasma immunoglobulin G samples which had previously been artificially modified by adding other glycoproteins (such as ribonuclease B and fetuin) or by digesting with enzyme (neuraminidase). Principal component analysis (PCA) and classification through soft independent modelling by class analogy (SIMCA) were used to detect minor glycosylation changes. Using HILIC-MS-PCA/SIMCA approach, it was possible to detect small changes in N-glycosylation, which had not been detected directly from the extracted-ion chromatograms, which is current technique to detect N-glycosylation changes in batch-to-batch analysis. The HILIC-MS-PCA/SIMCA approach is highly sensitive approach due to the sensitivity of MS and appropriate data processing approaches. It could help in assessing the changes in glycosylation, controlling batch-to-batch consistency, and establishing acceptance limits according to the glycosylation changes, ensuring safety and efficacy. Graphical abstract N-glycosylation characterization using LC-MS-PCA approach.

 

The presence of modified nucleosides in extracellular fluids leads to the specific incorporation of 5-chlorocytidine into RNA and modulates the transcription and translation

Noyon, C., Roumeguere, T., Delporte, C., Dufour, D., Cortese, M., Desmet, J.-M., Lelubre, C., Rousseau, A., Poelvoorde, P., Neve, J., Vanhamme, L., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., & Van Antwerpen, P. (2017). The presence of modified nucleosides in extracellular fluids leads to the specific incorporation of 5-chlorocytidine into RNA and modulates the transcription and translation. Molecular and cellular biochemistry, 429(1-2), 59-71. doi:10.1007/s11010-016-2936-2  

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is able to promote several kinds of damage and is involved in mechanisms leading to various diseases such as atherosclerosis or cancers. An example of these damages is the chlorination of nucleic acids, which is considered as a specific marker of the MPO activity. Since 5-chlorocytidine has been recently shown in healthy donor plasmas, this study aimed at discovering if these circulating modified nucleosides could be incorporated into RNA and DNA and if their presence impacts the ability of enzymes involved in the incorporation, transcription, and translation processes. Experimentations, which were carried out in vitro with endothelial and prostatic cells, showed a large penetration of all chloronucleosides but an exclusive incorporation of 5-chlorocytidine into RNA. However, no incorporation into DNA was observed. This specific incorporation is accompanied by an important reduction of translation yield. Although, in vitro, DNA polymerase processed in the presence of chloronucleosides but more slowly than in control conditions, ribonucleotide reductase could not reduce chloronucleotides prior to the replication. This reduction seems to be a limiting step, protecting DNA from chloronucleoside incorporation. This study shows the capacity of transcription enzyme to specifically incorporate 5-chlorocytidine into RNA and the loss of capacity—complete or partial—of different enzymes, involved in replication, transcription or translation, in the presence of chloronucleosides. Questions remain about the long-term impact of such specific incorporation in the RNA and such decrease of protein production on the cell viability and function.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/239895/4/Art_def_ClCyt_incorporation_RNA.pdfhttps://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/239895/3/MCBI-D-16-01063_R1.pdf

 

2016

Rosuvastatin and vascular oxidative stress induced by diesel exhaust particles

Labranche, N., Youl, E., El Khattabi, C., Dewachter, L., Wauthoz, N., Delporte, C., Berkenboom, G., & Pochet, S. (2016). Rosuvastatin and vascular oxidative stress induced by diesel exhaust particles. Acta cardiologica, 71(5), 565 - 572. doi:10.2143/AC.71.5.3167500  

Objective: Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is strongly linked to the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular diseases. Statins are effective drugs in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of rosuvastatin on DEP-induced endothelial dysfunction.Methods and results: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated for 5 weeks with rosuvastatin and exposed, intratracheally, for the last 4 weeks, to either DEP suspensions or saline vehicle. Rings of thoracic aortas were used to assess superoxide anion production through the lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence technique. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed on aortic segments to assess eNOS, iNOS, p22phox, gp91phox, Rac-1 and TNF-α mRNA expression. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were also used for the measurement of oxidative stress after DEP and/or rosuvastatin incubation. In thoracic aortic rings isolated from SHR, superoxide anion formation was increased after DEP exposure. This oxidative stress was markedly decreased in the rosuvastatin-treated group. DEP exposure also induced a downregulation of eNOS mRNA expression and a slight increase in gp91phox mRNA expression, which were reversed in the rosuvastatin group. In HUVECs, similar results were observed: DEP generated an accumulation of superoxide anion, which was significantly attenuated by rosuvastatin.Conclusions: Our results suggest that rosuvastatin interacts with the eNOS and NADPH oxidase pathways in hypertensive rats and therefore might counteract the oxidative stress induced by DEP. This effect was also observed in vitro in human endothelial cells (HUVECs).

 

D3. Early prediction of preeclampsia risk assessment: analytical determination for marinobufagenin in pregnant women.

Lenaerts, C., Bond, L., Tuytten, R., Delporte, C., Van Antwerpen, P., & Blankert, B. (2016). D3. Early prediction of preeclampsia risk assessment: analytical determination for marinobufagenin in pregnant women. The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians, 29(sup2), 18. doi:10.1080/14767058.2016.1234778  

Marinobufagenin (MBG), an endogenous bufadienolide cardiac inotrope, is responsible for vasoconstriction and natriuresis [1,2]. Growing interest by its implication in volume expansion mediated hypertensive states such as essential hypertension, congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure, primary aldosterism and preeclampsia (PE). Elevated endogenous MBG levels have been described early in preeclamptic patients [2-5].

 

Liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomic study for varietal discrimination of grapes according to plant sterols content

Millán, L., Sampedro, M. C., Sanchez-Mazas, A., Delporte, C., Van Antwerpen, P., Goicolea, M. A., & Barrio, R. R. (2016). Liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomic study for varietal discrimination of grapes according to plant sterols content. Journal of chromatography, 1454, 67-77. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2016.05.081  

Grapevine and derived products are rich in a wide range of compounds and its quality mainly depends on its metabolites, as a result of viticulture practices. Plant sterols, also called phytosterols (PS), are secondary metabolites regarded as bioactive substance present in grape berries and other plant-based food. The present study deals with a metabolomic approach focusing on phytosterols family in six varieties of Rioja grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon, Tempranillo, Graciano, Garnacha, White Garnacha and Viura), in order to find significant differences among them. Liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry with a quadrupole-time of flight mass analyzer (LC-QTOF) was used to find as many metabolites as possible in the different grape berry fractions, and using statistics to help finding significant clustering of the metabolic profile of pulp, peel and seeds in relation to the variety. The best chromatographic and detection conditions were achieved by gas phase ionization via atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode. Furthermore, analysis with electrospray (ESI) is also needed for phytosterol derivatives confirmation. Putative compounds of interest in the analyzed samples were found by an automated compound extraction algorithm (Molecular Feature Extraction, MFE) and an initial differential expression from the data was created with the aid of commercial software. Once the data were collected, the results were filtered, aligned and normalized, and evaluating applying one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a 95% significance level. For sample class prediction, partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) is used as a supervised pattern recognition method and excellent separation among the grape varieties is shown. An overall accuracy of 93.3% (pulp samples), 100.0% (peel) or 96.7% (seeds) in discriminating between grape varieties was achieved when comparing the different fractions. In general, 7 PS derivatives were identified with ID scores higher than 84%.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/236696/1/Elsevier_220323.pdf

 

Validation of a sensitive LC/MSMS method for chloronucleoside analysis in biological matrixes and its applications

Noyon, C., Delporte, C., Dufour, D., Cortese, M., Rousseau, A., Poelvoorde, P., Neve, J., Vanhamme, L., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Roumeguere, T., & Van Antwerpen, P. (2016). Validation of a sensitive LC/MSMS method for chloronucleoside analysis in biological matrixes and its applications. Talanta, 154, 322-328. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2016.03.087  

Myeloperoxidase promotes several kinds of damage and is involved in the development of various diseases (as atherosclerosis and cancers). An example of these damage is the chlorination of nucleic acids, which is considered as a specific marker of the MPO activity on those acids. This study aimed to develop and validate a method to analyze oxidized and MPO-specific chlorinated nucleosides in biological matrixes (cells, tissues and plasma). Although a lot of methods to quantify oxidized or chlorinated nucleosides have already been established, none of them took into account all these derivatives together. The new method used a Triple Quadrupole mass spectrometer fitted with a Jet Stream electrospray ionization source. This approach has two advantages compared with existing LC/MSMS analyses: it includes MPO-induced modifications in a unique analysis and obtains a better sensitivity. Our optimized method reached LOQs of 1.50 pg and 1.42 pg respectively for oxoG and oxo(d)G, being 4 times more sensitive than previous methods, and LOQs of 1.39 pg, 1.30 pg and 63.4 fg respectively for 5-chlorocytidine, 5-chloro-2′-deoxycytidine and 8-chloroguanosine. Developed method is also 25 times more sensitive for chloroguanosine than the best existing method. Nevertheless, this method is not specific enough for 8-chloro-(2′-deoxy)adenosine analysis. Examples of applications demonstrate the interest of this validated method. Indeed analysis of plasma from healthy donors highlighted exclusively the presence of 5-chlorocytidine (1.0±0.2 nM) whereas analysis of treated endothelial cells by HOCl showed chlorination of guanosine and cytidine in cytoplasmic pools and chlorination of (deoxy)cytidine in DNA and RNA. In conclusion, this study shows that 5-chloro-2′-deoxycytidine, 5-chlorocytidine and 8-chloroguanosine are good markers allowing us to detect the MPO activity in biological fluids. The robust, specific and sensitive developed method enables future studies on MPO implications in human diseases.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/230987/1/Elsevier_214614.pdf

 

Novel bis-arylalkylamines as myeloperoxidase inhibitors: Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship study.

Aldib, I., Gelbcke, M., Soubhye, J., Prévost, M., Furtmüller, P. G., Obinger, C., Elfving, B., Chikh Alard, I., Roos, G., Delporte, C., Berger, G., Dufour, D., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Neve, J., Dufrasne, F., & Van Antwerpen, P. (2016). Novel bis-arylalkylamines as myeloperoxidase inhibitors: Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship study. European journal of medicinal chemistry, 123, 746-762. doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2016.07.053  

Human myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays an important role in innate immunity but also aggravates tissue damage by oxidation of biomolecules at sites of inflammation. As a result from a recent high-throughput virtual screening approach for MPO inhibitors, bis-2,2'-[(dihydro-1,3(2H,4H) pyrimidinediyl)bis(methylene)]phenol was detected as a promising lead compound for inhibition of the MPO-typical two-electron oxidation of chloride to hypochlorous acid (IC50 = 0.5 μM). In the present pharmacomodulation study, 37 derivatives of this lead compound were designed and synthesized driven by comprehensive docking studies and the impact on the chlorination activity of MPO. We describe the structural requirements for optimum (i) binding to the heme periphery and (ii) inhibition capacity. Finally, the best three inhibitors (bis-arylalkylamine derivatives) were probed for interaction with the MPO redox intermediates Compound I and Compound II. Determined apparent bimolecular rate constants together with determination of reduction potential and nucleophilicity of the selected compounds allowed us to propose a mechanism of inhibition. The best inhibitor was found to promote the accumulation of inactive form of MPO-Compound II and has IC50 = 54 nM, demonstrating the successful approach of the drug design. Due to the similarity of ligand interactions between MPO and serotonine transporter, the selectivity of this inhibitor was also tested on the serotonin transporter providing a selectivity index of 14 (KiSERT/IC50MPO).

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/235321/4/Elsevier_218948.pdf

 

Myeloperoxidase as a Target for Treatment of Inflammatory Syndromes: Mechanisms and Structure Activity Relationships of Inhibitors.

Soubhye, J., Aldib, I., Delporte, C., Prévost, M., Dufrasne, F., & Van Antwerpen, P. (2016). Myeloperoxidase as a Target for Treatment of Inflammatory Syndromes: Mechanisms and Structure Activity Relationships of Inhibitors. Current medicinal chemistry. doi:10.2174/0929867323666160607111806  

Inflammation is the initial response of the body to the harmful stimuli and it is achieved by the increased movement of leukocytes (especially granulocytes) from blood into injured tissues. It is required for healing wounds and infections. Despite their indispensable role in microbial killing, the inflammation reactions may also cause diseases to a host such as hay fever, atherosclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. The enzymes and oxidizing species released during the inflammatory process can cause damages to the host tissues which lead to inflammatory syndromes. The role of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the inflammatory reactions is well documented. It contributes in killing the pathogens but it is also implicated in several inflammatory syndromes such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. Thus, this enzyme attracted more and more attention of the scientists and it became a target for drug designing. In the last decade, several reversible and irreversible MPO inhibitors were identified as very high potent inhibitors such as fluoroalkylindole, aromatic hydroxamic acid, thioxanthine and benzoic acid hydrazide derivatives. In this review, we tried to illustrate the MPO inhibitors and highlight their structure activity relationship (SAR). In this paper we also discussed the mechanism of the inhibitory effect of the most potent compounds.

 

Glycan characterization of biopharmaceuticals: Updates and perspectives.

Planinc, A., Bones, J., Dejaegher, B., Van Antwerpen, P., & Delporte, C. (2016). Glycan characterization of biopharmaceuticals: Updates and perspectives. Analytica chimica acta, 921, 13-27. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2016.03.049  

Therapeutic proteins are rapidly becoming the most promising class of pharmaceuticals on the market due to their successful treatment of a vast array of serious diseases, such as cancers and immune disorders. Therapeutic proteins are produced using recombinant DNA technology. More than 60% of therapeutic proteins are posttranslationally modified following biosynthesis by the addition of N- or O-linked glycans. Glycosylation is the most common posttranslational modifications of proteins. However, it is also the most demanding and complex posttranslational modification from the analytical point of view. Moreover, research has shown that glycosylation significantly impacts stability, half-life, mechanism of action and safety of a therapeutic protein. Considering the exponential growth of biotherapeutics, this present review of the literature (2009-2015) focuses on the characterization of protein glycosylation, which has witnessed an improvement in methodology. Furthermore, it discusses current issues in the fields of production and characterization of therapeutic proteins. This review also highlights the problem of non-standard requirements for the approval of biosimilars with regard to their glycosylation and discusses recent developments and perspectives for improved glycan characterization.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/233094/1/Elsevier_216721.pdf

 

Phosphatidylethanolamine is a Key Regulator of Membrane Fluidity in Eukaryotic Cells

Dawaliby, R., Trubbia, C., Delporte, C., Noyon, C., Ruysschaert, J. M., Van Antwerpen, P., & Govaerts, C. (2016). Phosphatidylethanolamine is a Key Regulator of Membrane Fluidity in Eukaryotic Cells. The Journal of biological chemistry, 291(7), 10.1074/jbc.M115.706523, 3658-67. doi:10.1074/jbc.M115.706523  

Adequate membrane fluidity is required for a variety of key cellular processes and in particular for proper function of membrane proteins. In most eukaryotic cells membrane fluidity is known to be regulated by fatty acids desaturation and cholesterol although some cells, such insect cells, are almost devoid of sterols synthesis. We show here that insect and mammalian cells present similar microviscosity at their respective physiological temperature. In order to investigate how both sterols and phospholipids control fluidity homeostasis we quantified the lipidic composition of insect SF9b and mammalian HEK 293T cells under normal or sterol-modified condition. As expected, insect cells show minimal sterols compared to mammalian cells. A major difference is also observed in phospholipid content as the ratio of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to phosphatidylcholine (PC) is inverted (four times higher in SF9 cells). In vitro studies in liposomes confirm that both cholesterol and PE can increase rigidity of the bilayer, suggesting that both can be used by cells to maintain membrane fluidity. We then show that exogenously increasing the cholesterol amount in SF9 membranes leads to a significant decrease in PE/PC ratio while decreasing cholesterol in HEK 293T cells using statin treatment leads to an increase in the PE/PC ratio. In all cases the membrane fluidity is maintained, indicating that both cell types combine regulation by sterols and phospholipids to control proper membrane fluidity.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/220405/3/jbc.M115.706523.full.pdf

 

Allosteric regulation of G protein-coupled receptor activity by phospholipids.

Dawaliby, R., Trubbia, C., Delporte, C., Masureel, M., Van Antwerpen, P., Kobilka, B. K., & Govaerts, C. (2016). Allosteric regulation of G protein-coupled receptor activity by phospholipids. Nature Chemical Biology, 12(1), 1960, 35-39. doi:10.1038/nchembio.1960  

Lipids are emerging as key regulators of membrane protein structure and activity. These effects can be attributed either to the modification of bilayer properties (thickness, curvature and surface tension) or to the binding of specific lipids to the protein surface. For G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the effects of phospholipids on receptor structure and activity remain poorly understood. Here we reconstituted purified β2-adrenergic receptor (β2R) in high-density lipoparticles to systematically characterize the effect of biologically relevant phospholipids on receptor activity. We observed that the lipid headgroup type affected ligand binding (agonist and antagonist) and receptor activation. Specifically, phosphatidylgycerol markedly favored agonist binding and facilitated receptor activation, whereas phosphatidylethanolamine favored antagonist binding and stabilized the inactive state of the receptor. We then showed that these effects could be recapitulated with detergent-solubilized lipids, demonstrating that the functional modulation occurred in the absence of a bilayer. Our data suggest that phospholipids act as direct allosteric modulators of GPCR activity.

 

Methylprednisolone-induced lymphocytosis in patients with immune mediated inflammatory disorders

Bromberg, L., Roufosse, F., Pradier, O., Delporte, C., Van Antwerpen, P., De Maertelaer, V., & Cogan, E. (2016). Methylprednisolone-induced lymphocytosis in patients with immune mediated inflammatory disorders. The American journal of medicine, 7(129), 746-752. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2016.02.013  

Transient acute reversible lymphopenia occurring within hours after glucocorticoid administration is a well-known phenomenon. The objective of this study was to establish the impact of chronic methylprednisolone (mPDN) administration on lymphocyte counts in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/220403/3/Elsevier_204030.pdf

 

2015

An immunological method to combine the measurement of active and total myeloperoxidase on the same biological fluid, and its application in finding inhibitors which interact directly with the enzyme.

Franck, T., Minguet, G., Delporte, C., Derochette, S., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Van Antwerpen, P., Gach, O., Deby-Dupont, G., Mouithys-Mickalad, A., & Serteyn, D. (2015). An immunological method to combine the measurement of active and total myeloperoxidase on the same biological fluid, and its application in finding inhibitors which interact directly with the enzyme. Free radical research, 49(6), 790-799. doi:10.3109/10715762.2015.1027197  

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-oxidant enzyme involved in inflammation, and the measurement of its activity in biological samples has emerged essential for laboratory and clinical investigations. We will describe a new method which combines the SIEFED (specific immunological extraction followed by enzymatic detection) and ELISA (ELISAcb) techniques to measure the active and total amounts of MPO on the same human sample and with the same calibration curve, as well as to define an accurate ratio between both the active and total forms of the enzyme. The SIEFED/ELISAcb method consists of the MPO extraction from aqueous or biological samples by immobilized anti-MPO antibodies coated onto microplate wells. After a washing step to eliminate unbound material, the activity of MPO is measured in situ by adding a reaction solution (SIEFED). Following aspiration of the reaction solution, a secondary anti-MPO antibody is added into the wells and the ELISAcb test is carried out in order to measure the total MPO content. To validate the combined method, a comparison was made with SIEFED and ELISA experiments performed separately on plasma samples isolated from human whole blood, after a neutrophil stimulation. The SIEFED/ELISAcb provides a suitable tool for the measurement of specific MPO activity in biological fluids and for the estimation of the inhibitory potential of a fluid. The method can also be used as a pharmacological tool to make the distinction between a catalytic inhibitor, which binds to MPO and inhibits its activity, and a steric inhibitor, which hinders the enzyme and prevents its immunodetection.

 

Comparative analysis of monoclonal antibody N-glycosylation using stable isotope labelling and UPLC-fluorescence-MS

Millán Martín, S., Delporte, C., Farrell, A., McLoughlin, N., Bones, J., & Navas Iglesias, N. (2015). Comparative analysis of monoclonal antibody N-glycosylation using stable isotope labelling and UPLC-fluorescence-MS. Analyst, 140(5), 1442-1447. doi:10.1039/c4an02345e  

A twoplex method using 12C6 and 13C6 stable isotope analogues (Δmass = 6 Da) of 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA) is described for quantitative analysis of N-glycans present on monoclonal antibodies and other glycoproteins using ultra performance liquid chromatography with sequential fluorescence and accurate mass tandem quadrupole time of flight (QToF) mass spectrometric detection. This journal is

 

Advancement in stationary phase for peptide separation helps in protein identification

Delporte, C., Noyon, C., Raynal, P., Dufour, D., Neve, J., Abts, F., Haex, M., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., & Van Antwerpen, P. (2015). Advancement in stationary phase for peptide separation helps in protein identification: Application to atheroma plaque proteomics using nano-chip liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Journal of chromatography, 1385, 116-123. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2015.01.038  

In the last decades, proteomics has largely progressed. Mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography (LC) are generally used in proteomics. These techniques enable proper separation of peptides and good identification and/or quantification of them. Later, nano-scaled liquid chromatography, improvements of mass spectrometry resolution and sensitivity brought huge advancements. Enhancements in chemistry of chromatographic columns also brought interesting results. In the present work, the potency of identification of proteins by different nano-chip columns was studied and compared with classical LC column. The present study was applied to cardiovascular field where proteomics has shown to be highly helpful in research of new biomarkers. Protein extracts from atheroma plaques were used and proteomics data were compared. Results show that fewer spectra were acquired by the mass spectrometer when nano-chip columns were used instead of the classical ones. However, approximately 40% more unique peptides were identified by the recently optimized chip named Polaris-HR-chip-3C18 column, and 20% more proteins were identified. This fact leads to the identification of more low-abundance proteins. Many of them are involved in atheroma plaque development such as apolipoproteins, ceruloplasmin, etc. In conclusion, present data shows that recent developments of nanoLC column chemistry and dimensions enabled the improved detection and identification of low-abundance proteins in atheroma plaques. Several of them are of major interest in the field of cardiovascular disease.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/198481/1/Elsevier_182108.pdf

 

Multidomain Human Peroxidasin 1 is a Highly Glycosylated and Stable Homotrimeric High-Spin Ferric Peroxidase.

Soudi, M., Paumann-Page, M., Delporte, C., Pirker, K. K., Bellei, M., Edenhofer, E., Stadlmayr, G., Battistuzzi, G., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Furtmüller, P. G., Van Antwerpen, P., & Obinger, C. (2015). Multidomain Human Peroxidasin 1 is a Highly Glycosylated and Stable Homotrimeric High-Spin Ferric Peroxidase. The Journal of biological chemistry. doi:10.1074/jbc.M114.632273  

Human peroxidasin 1 (hsPxd01) is a multidomain heme peroxidase that uses bromide as a cofactor for the formation of sulfilimine crosslinks. The latter confer critical structural reinforcement to collagen IV scaffolds. Here hsPxd01 and various truncated variants lacking non-enzymatic domains were recombinantly expressed in HEK cell lines. The N-glycosylation site occupancy and disulfide pattern, the oligomeric structure and unfolding pathway are reported. The homotrimeric ironprotein contains a covalently-bound ferric high-spin heme per subunit with a standard reduction potential of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple of -233 mV at pH 7.0. Despite sequence homology at the active site and biophysical properties similar to human peroxidases, the catalytic efficiency of bromide oxidation (kcat/KM) of full-length hsPxd01 is rather low but increased upon truncation. This is discussed with respect to its structure and proposed biosynthetic function in collagen IV crosslinking.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/198907/5/doi_182534.pdf

 

2014

Hybrid molecules inhibiting myeloperoxidase activity and serotonin reuptake: a possible new approach of major depressive disorders with inflammatory syndrome.

Soubhye, J., Aldib, I., Prévost, M., Elfving, B., Gelbcke, M., Podrecca, M., Conotte, R., Colet, J.-M., Furtmüller, P. G., Delporte, C., Rousseau, A., Vanhaeverbeek, M., Neve, J., Obinger, C., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Van Antwerpen, P., & Dufrasne, F. (2014). Hybrid molecules inhibiting myeloperoxidase activity and serotonin reuptake: a possible new approach of major depressive disorders with inflammatory syndrome. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 66(8), 1122-1132. doi:10.1111/jphp.12236  

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is accompanied with an imbalance in the immune system and cardiovascular impairments, such as atherosclerosis. Several mechanisms have been pointed out to underlie this rather unexpected association, and among them the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO). The aim of our study was to find compounds that inhibit both MPO and serotonin transporter (SERT) for treating MDD associated with cardiovascular diseases.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/159760/1/Hybrid-molecs_MPO_SERT.pdfhttps://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/159760/4/159760.pdf

 

Impact of interaction between myeloperoxidase and low-density lipoprotein on the specific activity of the enzyme and subsequent post-translational oxidative modifications of apolipoprotein B-100.

Delporte, C., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Noyon, C., Furtmueller, P. G., Nuyens, V., Slomianny, M.-C., Madhoun, P., Desmet, J.-M., Raynal, P., Dufour, D., Koyani, C. N., Reye, F., Rousseau, A., Vanhaeverbeek, M., Ducobu, J., Michalski, J.-C., Neve, J., Vanhamme, L., Obinger, C., Malle, E., & Van Antwerpen, P. (2014). Impact of interaction between myeloperoxidase and low-density lipoprotein on the specific activity of the enzyme and subsequent post-translational oxidative modifications of apolipoprotein B-100. Journal of lipid research. doi:10.1194/jlr.M047449  

Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2O2-chloride system is a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. The present study aimed at investigating the interaction of MPO with native and modified LDL and at revealing post-translational modifications on apolipoprotein-B-100 (the unique apolipoprotein of LDL) in vitro and in vivo. Using amperometry we demonstrate that MPO activity increases up to 90% when it is adsorbed at the surface of LDL. This phenomenon is apparently reflected by local structural changes in MPO observed by circular dichroism. Using mass spectrometry we further analyzed in vitro modifications of apolipoprotein-B-100 by HOCl generated by the MPO-H2O2-chloride system or added as a reagent. A total of 97 peptides containing modified residues could be identified. Furthermore, differences were observed between LDL oxidized by reagent HOCl or HOCl generated by the MPO-H2O2-chloride system. Finally, LDL was isolated from patients with high cardiovascular risk to confirm that our in vitro findings are also relevant in vivo. We show that several of HOCl-mediated modifications of apolipoprotein-B-100 identified in vitro were also present on LDL isolated from patients who have increased levels of plasma MPO and MPO-modified LDL. In conclusion, these data emphasize the specificity of MPO to oxidize LDL.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/156728/3/doi_141730.pdf

 

MYELOPEROXIDASE AND ITS PRODUCTS IN SYNOVIAL FLUID OF PATIENTS WITH TREATED OR UNTREATED RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

Nzeusseu Toukap, A., Delporte, C., Noyon, C., Franck, T., Rousseau, A., Serteyn, D., Raes, M., Vanhaeverbeek, M., Moguilevsky, N., Neve, J., Vanhamme, L., Durez, P., Van Antwerpen, P., & Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K. (2014). MYELOPEROXIDASE AND ITS PRODUCTS IN SYNOVIAL FLUID OF PATIENTS WITH TREATED OR UNTREATED RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. Free radical research. doi:10.3109/10715762.2014.886327  

ABSTRACT Objective Plasma and synovial myeloperoxidase (MPO) and its products were strongly associated with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, it is well known that there is a link between oxidative stress and cytokines. The present study aims at investigating the link between synovial MPO (and its products), IL-18, which is involved in the degradation of articular cartilage in RA, and IL-8, which is involved in recruitment and activation of neutrophils during inflammation. Effects of the treatment of RA on the biological parameters were also investigated. Methods Patients (n=105) were studied including 39 patients with OA, 33 with RA and 33 with RA receiving a specific treatment. DAS-28 was calculated whereas MPO antigen/activity, neutrophils, chloro-tyrosine, homocitrulline, IL-8 and IL-18 were measured in synovial fluid (SF) and CRP was measured in serum. Results DAS-28 and CRP level were not significantly different between groups. MPO activity, and MPO, chloro-tyrosine and homocitrulline levels were significantly higher in SF of RA patients than OA patients. MPO specific activity (MPO activity/antigen ratio) was significantly lower in treated than in untreated RA patients as was IL-8. MPO activity and concentration were correlated with IL-8 and IL-18 in untreated but not in treated RA patients. Conclusions MPO level is related to IL-8 and IL-18 levels in untreated RA patients. A link has been shown between treatment and decrease of IL-8, MPO specific activity and homocitrulline in SF. The causal role of MPO in SF inflammation and how treatment can affect MPO specific activity need further investigations.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/155523/4/NzeusseuToukapDelporteetal.pdfhttps://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/155523/3/MPO_IN_THE_JOINT-10-12-2012.pdf

 

2013

Ophiobolin A, a sesterterpenoid fungal phytotoxin, displays higher in vitro growth-inhibitory effects in mammalian than in plant cells and displays in vivo antitumor activity.

Bury, M., Novo-Uzal, E., Andolfi, A., Cimini, S., Wauthoz, N., Heffeter, P., Lallemand, B., Avolio, F., Delporte, C., Cimmino, A., Dubois, J., Van Antwerpen, P., Zonno, M. C., Vurro, M., Poumay, Y., Berger, W., Evidente, A., De Gara, L., Kiss, R., & Locato, V. (2013). Ophiobolin A, a sesterterpenoid fungal phytotoxin, displays higher in vitro growth-inhibitory effects in mammalian than in plant cells and displays in vivo antitumor activity. International journal of oncology, 43(2), 575-585. doi:10.3892/ijo.2013.1979  

Ophiobolin A, a sesterterpenoid produced by plant pathogenic fungi, was purified from the culture extract of Drechslera gigantea and tested for its growth-inhibitory activity in both plant and mammalian cells. Ophiobolin A induced cell death in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2 (TBY-2) cells at concentrations ≥10 µM, with the TBY-2 cells showing typical features of apoptosis-like cell death. At a concentration of 5 µM, ophiobolin A did not affect plant cell viability but prevented cell proliferation. When tested on eight cancer cell lines, concentrations <1 µM of ophiobolin A inhibited growth by 50% after 3 days of culture irrespective of their multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes and their resistance levels to pro-apoptotic stimuli. It is, thus, unlikely that ophiobolin A exerts these in vitro growth-inhibitory effects in cancer cells by activating pro-apoptotic processes. Highly proliferative human keratinocytes appeared more sensitive to the growth-inhibitory effects of ophiobolin A than slowly proliferating ones. Ophiobolin A also displayed significant antitumor activity at the level of mouse survival when assayed at 10 mg/kg in the B16F10 mouse melanoma model with lung pseudometastases. Ophiobolin A could, thus, represent a novel scaffold to combat cancer types that display various levels of resistance to pro-apoptotic stimuli and/or various MDR phenotypes.

 

Low-density lipoprotein modified by myeloperoxidase in inflammatory pathways and clinical studies.

Delporte, C., Van Antwerpen, P., Vanhamme, L., Roumeguere, T., & Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K. (2013). Low-density lipoprotein modified by myeloperoxidase in inflammatory pathways and clinical studies. Mediators of inflammation, 2013, 971579. doi:10.1155/2013/971579  

Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has a key role in atherogenesis. Among the different models of oxidation that have been studied, the one using myeloperoxidase (MPO) is thought to be more physiopathologically relevant. Apolipoprotein B-100 is the unique protein of LDL and is the major target of MPO. Furthermore, MPO rapidly adsorbs at the surface of LDL, promoting oxidation of amino acid residues and formation of oxidized lipoproteins that are commonly named Mox-LDL. The latter is not recognized by the LDL receptor and is accumulated by macrophages. In the context of atherogenesis, Mox-LDL accumulates in macrophages leading to foam cell formation. Furthermore, Mox-LDL seems to have specific effects and triggers inflammation. Indeed, those oxidized lipoproteins activate endothelial cells and monocytes/macrophages and induce proinflammatory molecules such as TNF α and IL-8. Mox-LDL may also inhibit fibrinolysis mediated via endothelial cells and consecutively increase the risk of thrombus formation. Finally, Mox-LDL has been involved in the physiopathology of several diseases linked to atherosclerosis such as kidney failure and consequent hemodialysis therapy, erectile dysfunction, and sleep restriction. All these issues show that the investigations of MPO-dependent LDL oxidation are of importance to better understand the inflammatory context of atherosclerosis.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/152336/4/doi_136829.pdf

 

Myeloperoxidase-Dependent LDL Modifications in Bloodstream Are Mainly Predicted by Angiotensin II, Adiponectin, and Myeloperoxidase Activity: A Cross-Sectional Study in Men.

Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Delporte, C., Van Antwerpen, P., Franck, T., Serteyn, D., Moguilevsky, N., Raes, M., Vanhamme, L., Vanhaeverbeek, M., Van Meerhaeghe, A., & Roumeguere, T. (2013). Myeloperoxidase-Dependent LDL Modifications in Bloodstream Are Mainly Predicted by Angiotensin II, Adiponectin, and Myeloperoxidase Activity: A Cross-Sectional Study in Men. Mediators of inflammation, 2013, 750742. doi:10.1155/2013/750742  

The present paradigm of atherogenesis proposes that low density lipoproteins (LDLs) are trapped in subendothelial space of the vascular wall where they are oxidized. Previously, we showed that oxidation is not restricted to the subendothelial location. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme secreted by neutrophils and macrophages, can modify LDL (Mox-LDL) at the surface of endothelial cells. In addition we observed that the activation of the endothelial cells by angiotensin II amplifies this process. We suggested that induction of the NADPH oxidase complex was a major step in the oxidative process. Based on these data, we asked whether there was an independent association, in 121 patients, between NADPH oxidase modulators, such as angiotensin II, adiponectin, and levels of circulating Mox-LDL. Our observations suggest that the combination of blood angiotensin II, MPO activity, and adiponectin explains, at least partially, serum Mox-LDL levels.

 

2012

Simultaneous measurement of protein-bound 3-chlorotyrosine and homocitrulline by LC-MS/MS after hydrolysis assisted by microwave: Application to the study of myeloperoxidase activity during hemodialysis.

Delporte, C., Franck, T., Noyon, C., Dufour, D., Rousseau, A., Madhoun, P., Desmet, J.-M., Serteyn, D., Raes, M., Nortier, J., Vanhaeverbeek, M., Moguilevsky, N., Neve, J., Vanhamme, L., Van Antwerpen, P., & Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K. (2012). Simultaneous measurement of protein-bound 3-chlorotyrosine and homocitrulline by LC-MS/MS after hydrolysis assisted by microwave: Application to the study of myeloperoxidase activity during hemodialysis. Talanta, 99, 603-609. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2012.06.044  

A high degree of uremia is common in patients with end-stage renal disease and has been linked to the development of chronic inflammation and cardiovascular diseases. In conditions where transplantation is not possible, uremia can be reduced by hemodialysis although the repeated interventions have been implicated in loss of renal function, partially as a result of chronic inflammation and/or oxidative stress processes. In this context, it has been suggested that myeloperoxidase (MPO) can contribute to the oxidative stress during hemodialysis and to the cardiovascular risk. Protein damages due to MPO activity have never been assessed during hemodialysis although two of its reaction products, 3-chlorotyrosine and homocitrulline, are of interest. Indeed, the first one is a specific product of MPO activity and the formation of the second one could be catalyzed by MPO. In order to analyze these products in plasma proteins, a total hydrolysis method followed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis was developed. Different conditions of hydrolysis were tested and the optimized procedure was assessed for complete hydrolysis and artifactual chlorination. Finally, the method was used for analyzing 3-chlorotyrosine and homocitrulline in plasma proteins during a hemodialysis session in fifteen patients and data were related to measurements of MPO concentration and activity. Both increases in MPO activity and protein-bound 3-chlorotyrosine were observed, highlighting the involvement of MPO in oxidative stress during hemodialysis and further demonstrating the link between hemodialysis and cardiovascular diseases.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/128653/1/Delporteetal_talanata_99.pdf

 

Myeloperoxidase activity and its products during hemodialysis

Delporte, C., Franck, T., Noyon, C., Dufour, D., Madhoun, P., Desmet, J.-M., Serteyn, D., Deby-Dupont, G., Nortier, J., Vanhaeverbeek, M., Neve, J., Vanhamme, L., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., & Van Antwerpen, P. (2012). Myeloperoxidase activity and its products during hemodialysis. Free radical biology & medicine, 53, 131-132.  

 

Myeloperoxidase activity increases at the surface of LDL

Delporte, C., Furtmüller, P. G., Malle, E., Noyon, C., Vanhaeverbeek, M., Vanhamme, L., Neve, J., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Obinger, C., & Van Antwerpen, P. (2012). Myeloperoxidase activity increases at the surface of LDL. Free radical biology & medicine, 53, 132.  

 

2011

Optimization of apolipoprotein-B-100 sequence coverage by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the future study of its posttranslational modifications.

Delporte, C., Van Antwerpen, P., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Noyon, C., Abts, F., Métral, F., Vanhamme, L., Reye, F., Rousseau, A., Vanhaeverbeek, M., Ducobu, J., & Neve, J. (2011). Optimization of apolipoprotein-B-100 sequence coverage by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the future study of its posttranslational modifications. Analytical biochemistry, 411(1), 129-138. doi:10.1016/j.ab.2010.11.039  

Proteomic applications have been increasingly used to study posttranslational modifications of proteins (PTMs). For the purpose of identifying and localizing specific but unknown PTMs on huge proteins, improving their sequence coverage is fundamental. Using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), peptide mapping of the native apolipoprotein-B-100 was performed to further document the effects of oxidation. Apolipoprotein-B-100 is the main protein of low-density lipoprotein particles and its oxidation could play a role in atherogenesis. Because it is one of the largest human proteins, the sequence recovery rate of apolipoprotein-B-100 only reached 1% when conventional analysis parameters were used. The different steps of the peptide mapping process-from protein treatment to data analysis-were therefore reappraised and optimized. These optimizations allowed a protein sequence recovery rate of 79%, a rate which has never been achieved previously for such a large human protein. The key points for improving peptide mapping were optimization of the data analysis software; peptide separation by LC; sample preparation; and MS acquisition. The new protocol has allowed us to increase by a factor of 4 the detection of modified peptides in apolipoprotein-B-100. This approach could easily be transferred to any study of PTMs using LC-MS/MS.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/88329/1/Elsevier_66697.pdf

 

N-(2-{3-[3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ureido}ethyl)-glycyrrhetinamide (6b): A Novel Anticancer Glycyrrhetinic Acid Derivative that Targets the Proteasome and Displays Anti-Kinase Activity.

Lallemand, B., Chaix, F., Bury, M., Bruyère, C., Ghostin, J., Becker, J.-P., Delporte, C., Gelbcke, M., Mathieu, V., Dubois, J., Prévost, M., Jabin, I., & Kiss, R. (2011). N-(2-{3-[3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ureido}ethyl)-glycyrrhetinamide (6b): A Novel Anticancer Glycyrrhetinic Acid Derivative that Targets the Proteasome and Displays Anti-Kinase Activity. Journal of medicinal chemistry, 54, 6501-6513. doi:10.1021/jm200285z  

18-β-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA; 1) and many of its derivatives are cytotoxic in cancer cells. The current study aims to characterize the anticancer effects of 17 novel 1 derivatives. On the basis of these studies, N-(2-{3-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ureido}ethyl)-glycyrrhetinamide (6b) appeared to be the most potent compound, with IC(50)in vitro growth inhibitory concentrations in single-digit micromolarity in a panel of 8 cancer cell lines. Compound 6b is cytostatic and displays similar efficiency in apoptosis-sensitive versus apoptosis-resistant cancer cell lines through, at least partly, the inhibition of the activity of a cluster of a dozen kinases that are implicated in cancer cell proliferation and in the control of the actin cytoskeleton organization. Compound 6b also inhibits the activity of the 3 proteolytic units of the proteasome. Compound 6b thus represents an interesting hit from which future compounds could be derived to improve chemotherapeutic regimens that aim to combat cancers associated with poor prognoses.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/98235/1/Glycyrrhetinamidederivative_cancer-proteasome-kinase.pdf

 

2010

Copper and myeloperoxidase-modified LDLs activate Nrf2 through different pathways of ROS production in macrophages.

Calay, D., Rousseau, A., Mattart, L., Nuyens, V., Delporte, C., Van Antwerpen, P., Moguilevsky, N., Arnould, T., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., & Raes, M. (2010). Copper and myeloperoxidase-modified LDLs activate Nrf2 through different pathways of ROS production in macrophages. Antioxidants & redox signalling, 13(10), 1491-1502. doi:10.1089/ars.2009.2971  

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is a key step in atherogenesis, promoting the formation of lipid-laden macrophages. Here, we compared the effects of copper-oxidized LDLs (OxLDLs) and of the more physiologically relevant myeloperoxidase-oxidized LDLs (MoxLDLs) in murine RAW264.7 macrophages and in human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. Both oxidized LDLs, contrary to native LDLs, induced foam cell formation and an intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This oxidative stress was responsible for the activation of the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor, and the subsequent Nrf2-dependent overexpression of the antioxidant genes, Gclm and HO-1, as evidenced by the invalidation of Nrf2 by RNAi. MoxLDLs always induced a stronger response than OxLDLs. These differences could be partly explained by specific ROS-producing mechanisms differing between OxLDLs and MoxLDLs. Whereas both types of oxidized LDLs caused ROS production partly by NADPH oxidase, only MoxLDLs-induced ROS production was dependent on cytosolic PLA2. This study highlights that OxLDLs and MoxLDLs induce an oxidative stress, through distinct ROS-producing mechanisms, which is responsible for the differential activation of the Nrf2 pathway. These data clearly suggest that results obtained until now with copper oxidized-LDLs should be carefully reevaluated, taking into consideration physiologically more relevant oxidized LDLs.

 

Specific oxidation of apolipoprotein-B-100 by myeloperoxidase

Delporte, C., Van Antwerpen, P., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Noyon, C., Calay, D., Reye, F., Rousseau, A., Raes, M., Vanhaeverbeek, M., Ducobu, J., & Neve, J. (2010). Specific oxidation of apolipoprotein-B-100 by myeloperoxidase. Atherosclerosis. Supplement, 11(2).  

 

Oxidation of cyanide to cyanate by myeloperoxidase: A new route for apolipoprotein carbamylation?

Van Antwerpen, P., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Furtmüller, P. G., Dieu, M., Delporte, C., Raes, M., Moguilevsky, N., Vanhaeverbeek, M., Ducobu, J., Neve, J., & Obinger, C. (2010). Oxidation of cyanide to cyanate by myeloperoxidase: A new route for apolipoprotein carbamylation? Atherosclerosis. Supplement, 11(2).  

 

Glycosylation pattern of mature dimeric leukocyte and recombinant monomeric myeloperoxidase: glycosylation is required for optimal enzymatic activity.

Van Antwerpen, P., Slomianny, M.-C., Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K., Delporte, C., Faid, V., Calay, D., Rousseau, A., Moguilevsky, N., Raes, M., Vanhamme, L., Furtmüller, P. G., Obinger, C., Vanhaeverbeek, M., Neve, J., & Michalski, J.-C. (2010). Glycosylation pattern of mature dimeric leukocyte and recombinant monomeric myeloperoxidase: glycosylation is required for optimal enzymatic activity. The Journal of biological chemistry, 285(21), 16351-16359. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.089748  

The involvement of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in various inflammatory conditions has been the scope of many recent studies. Besides its well studied catalytic activity, the role of its overall structure and glycosylation pattern in biological function is barely known. Here, the N-glycan composition of native dimeric human MPO purified from neutrophils and of monomeric MPO recombinantly expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells has been investigated. Analyses showed the presence of five N-glycans at positions 323, 355, 391, 483, 729 in both proteins. Site by site analysis demonstrated a well conserved micro- and macro-heterogeneity and more complex-type N-glycans for the recombinant form. Comparison of biological functionality of glycosylated and deglycosylated recombinant MPO suggests that glycosylation is required for optimal enzymatic activity. Data are discussed with regard to biosynthesis and the three-dimensional structure of MPO.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/67963/5/doi_45027.pdf