Research Department Pharmacotherapy and Galenic Pharmacy (DPP)

Unit of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmacy

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Research activities

The development of dry powders for inhalation (DPIs) to combat different diseases (e.g. lung tumors, infectious diseases, asthma and COPD), and that with different kind of drugs (e.g. poorly water soluble or water soluble drugs; conventional or from biotechnologies), with optimal aerodynamic performance, lung retention and eventually increased cell or tumor penetration.

Therefore, we evaluate our formulations in vitro on culture cells and in vivo on preclinical models. We develop also nasal formulation for the nose to brain delivery of nucleic acids (e.g. siRNA) or peptide and proteins that we evaluate in vitro on epithelial cell membrane and in vivo by histology and on preclinical models.

Finally, we have focused on cancer targeting by localizing the administration (inhalation against lung cancer; nose to brain against glioblastoma), and/or by targeting tumor tissue or tumor cells (e.g. via endocytosis receptors).

Top ten recent articles

Articles dans des revues avec comité de lecture

2022

Inhaled dry powder cisplatin increases antitumour response to anti-PD1 in a murine lung cancer model

Davenne, T., Percier, P., Larbanoix, L., Moser, M., Leo, O., Meylan, E., Goriely, S., Gérard, P., Wauthoz, N., Laurent, S., Amighi, K., & Rosiere, R. (2022). Inhaled dry powder cisplatin increases antitumour response to anti-PD1 in a murine lung cancer model. Journal of controlled release, 353, 317-326. doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2022.11.055  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/352307/1/doi_335951.pdf

 

In vitro and in vivo local tolerability of a synergistic anti‐tuberculosis drug combination intended for pulmonary delivery

Ravon, F., Menchi, E., Lambot, C., Al Kattar, S., Chraibi, S., Remmelink, M., Fontaine, V., & Wauthoz, N. (2022). In vitro and in vivo local tolerability of a synergistic anti‐tuberculosis drug combination intended for pulmonary delivery. Journal of applied toxicology, 1-14. doi:10.1002/jat.4381  

A drug combination, vancomycin (VAN) plus tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), has demon-strated an effective synergistic action in vitro againstMycobacterium tuberculosis(Mtb). The poor oral bioavailability of VAN and THL and the predominant tropism ofMtb infection to the lungs make their pulmonary administration very attractive. Toevaluate their local tolerability, bronchial cells, alveolar cells and monocytes wereexposed to concentrations around and above their minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC). The VAN had no inhibitory activity on the tested human cell lines, even at aconcentration 125 times higher than its MIC, whereas the THL, alone or in combina-tion with VAN, presented a cytostatic action. Monolayer epithelium showed no sig-nificant irreversible damage at concentrations up to 100 times the combination MIC.BALB/cAnNRj mice exposed to concentration of 50 times the combination MICdelivered endotracheally 3 times a week for 3 weeks showed no clinical signs or sig-nificant weight loss. The increase of proinflammatory biomarkers (i.e., IL-1, IL-6, TNF-αand proportion of inflammatory cells) and cytotoxicity in bronchoalveolar lavagefluid (BALF) were non-significant. Lung histopathology did not show significant tissuedamage. The VAN/THL combination at doses up to 50 times the combination MIC isfound to be thus well tolerated by pulmonary route. This study is a promising resultand encouraging further investigations of pulmonary administration of VAN/THLcombination as dry powder for anti-tuberculosis treatment.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/349199/3/JAT22.pdfhttps://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/349199/4/Paper.pdf

 

In vitro and in vivo local tolerability of a synergistic anti-tuberculosis drug combination intended for pulmonary delivery

Ravon, F., Menchi, E., Lambot, C., Sahar, A. K., Chraibi, S., Remmelink, M., Fontaine, V., & Wauthoz, N. (2022). In vitro and in vivo local tolerability of a synergistic anti-tuberculosis drug combination intended for pulmonary delivery. Journal of applied toxicology, 1-14.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/348378/3/Ravon2022Manuscript.docxhttps://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/348378/4/2022Ravonpdf.pdf

 

Optimization of Long-Acting Bronchodilator Dose Ratios Using Isolated Guinea Pig Tracheal Rings for Synergistic Combination Therapy in Asthma and COPD

Menchi, E., El Khattabi, C., Pochet, S., Denis, O., Amighi, K., & Wauthoz, N. (2022). Optimization of Long-Acting Bronchodilator Dose Ratios Using Isolated Guinea Pig Tracheal Rings for Synergistic Combination Therapy in Asthma and COPD. Pharmaceuticals, 15(8). doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/ ph15080963  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/346610/3/pharmaceuticals-15-00963.pdf

 

2021

Development of Neutralizing Multimeric Nanobody Constructs Directed against IL-13: From Immunization to Lead Optimization

Gevenois, P., De Pauw, P., Schoonooghe, S., Delporte, C., Sebti, T., Amighi, K., Muyldermans, S., & Wauthoz, N. (2021). Development of Neutralizing Multimeric Nanobody Constructs Directed against IL-13: From Immunization to Lead Optimization. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 207(10), 2608-2620. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.2100250  

IL-13 is a pleiotropic cytokine mainly secreted by Th2 cells. It reacts with many different types of cells involved in allergy, inflammation, and fibrosis, e.g., mastocytes, B cells, and fibroblasts. The role of IL-13 in conditions involving one or several of these phenotypes has therefore been extensively investigated. The inhibition of this cytokine in animal models for various pathologies yielded highly promising results. However, most human trials relying on anti-IL-13 conventional mAbs have failed to achieve a significant improvement of the envisaged disorders. Where some studies might have suffered from several weaknesses, the strategies themselves, such as targeting only IL-13 using conventional mAbs or employing a systemic administration, could be questioned. Nanobodies are recombinant Ag-binding fragments derived from the variable part of H chain-only Abs occurring in Camelidae. Thanks to their single-domain structure, small size (≈15 kDa), good stability, and solubility, they can be engineered into multispecific constructs for combined therapies or for use in new strategies such as formulations for local administration, e.g., pulmonary administration. In this study, we describe the generation of 38 nanobodies that can be subdivided into five CDR3 families. Nine nanobodies were found to have a good affinity profile (KD = 1-200 nM), but none were able to strongly inhibit IL-13 biological activity in vitro (IC50 > 50 µM: HEK-Blue IL-13/IL-4 cells). Multimeric constructs were therefore designed from these inhibitors and resulted in an up to 36-fold improvement in affinity and up to 300-fold enhancement of the biological activity while conserving a high specificity toward IL-13.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/339144/3/Gevenois.pdf

 

Preclinical tolerance evaluation of the addition of a cisplatin-based dry powder for inhalation to the conventional carboplatin-paclitaxel doublet for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer

Chraibi, S., Rosiere, R., De Prez, E., Gérard, P., Antoine, M.-H., Langer, I., Nortier, J., Remmelink, M., Amighi, K., & Wauthoz, N. (2021). Preclinical tolerance evaluation of the addition of a cisplatin-based dry powder for inhalation to the conventional carboplatin-paclitaxel doublet for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy, 139, 111716. doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111716  

Despite the advances in targeted therapies and immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, the intravenous administration of carboplatin (CARB) and paclitaxel (PTX) in well-spaced cycles is widely indicated for the treatment of NSCLC from stage II to stage IV. Our strategy was to add a controlled-release cisplatin-based dry-powder for inhalation (CIS-DPI-ET) to the conventional CARB-PTX-IV doublet, administered during the treatment off-cycles to intensify the therapeutic response while avoiding the impairment of pulmonary, renal and haematological tolerance of these combinations. The co-administration of CIS-DPI-ET (0.5 mg/kg) and CARB-PTX-IV (17-10 mg/kg) the same day showed a higher proportion of neutrophils in BALF (35 ± 7% vs 1.3 ± 0.8%), with earlier regenerative anaemia than with CARB-PTX-IV alone. A first strategy of CARB-PTX-IV dose reduction by 25% also induced neutrophil recruitment, but in a lower proportion than with the first combination (20 ± 6% vs 0.3 ± 0.3%) and avoiding regenerative anaemia. A second strategy of delaying CIS-DPI-ET and CARB-PTX-IV administrations by 24 h avoided both the recruitment of neutrophils in BALF and regenerative anaemia. Moreover, all these groups showed higher cytotoxicity (LDH activity, protein content) with no higher renal toxicities. These two strategies seem interesting to be assessed in terms of antitumor efficacy in mice.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/325012/1/doi_308656.pdf

 

The combination of an innovative dry powder for inhalation and a standard cisplatin-based chemotherapy in view of therapeutic intensification against lung tumours

Chraibi, S., Rosiere, R., Larbanoix, L., Gérard, P., Hennia, I., Laurent, S., Vermeersch, M., Amighi, K., & Wauthoz, N. (2021). The combination of an innovative dry powder for inhalation and a standard cisplatin-based chemotherapy in view of therapeutic intensification against lung tumours. European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, 164, 93-104. doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2021.04.018  

Cisplatin is one of the most commonly used chemotherapy in lung cancer despite its high nephrotoxicity leading to an administration only every 3-4 weeks. This study is the first report of a preclinical investigation of therapeutic intensification combining a cisplatin dry powder for inhalation (CIS-DPI) with an intravenous (iv) cisplatin-based treatment. CIS-DPI with 50% cisplatin content (CIS-DPI-50) was developed using lipid excipients through scalable processes (high-speed and high-pressure homogenization and spray-drying). CIS-DPI-50 showed good aerodynamic performance (fine particle fraction of ~ 55% and a mass median aerodynamic particle size of ~ 2 µm) and a seven-fold increase and decrease in Cmax in the lungs and in plasma, respectively, in comparison with an iv cisplatin solution (CIS-iv) in healthy mice. Finally, the addition of CIS-DPI-50 to the standard cisplatin/paclitaxel iv doublet increased the response rate (67% vs 50%), decreased the tumour growth and prolonged the median survival (31 vs 21 days), compared to the iv doublet in the M109 lung carcinoma model tending to demonstrate a therapeutic intensification of cisplatin.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/324895/3/ChraibiEJPB.pdf

 

Pulmonary and renal tolerance of cisplatin-based regimens combining intravenous and endotracheal routes for lung cancer treatment in mice

Chraibi, S., Rosiere, R., De Prez, E., Antoine, M.-H., Remmelink, M., Langer, I., Nortier, J., Amighi, K., & Wauthoz, N. (2021). Pulmonary and renal tolerance of cisplatin-based regimens combining intravenous and endotracheal routes for lung cancer treatment in mice. International journal of pharmaceutics, 599, 120425. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120425  

Despite recent advances, platinum-based chemotherapy (partially composed of cisplatin, CIS) remains the backbone of non-small-cell lung cancer treatment. As CIS presents a cumulative and dose-limiting nephrotoxicity, it is currently administered with an interruption phase of 3-4 weeks between treatment cycles. During these periods, the patient recovers from the treatment side effects but so does the tumour. Our strategy is to increase the treatment frequency by delivering a cisplatin controlled-release dry powder for inhalation (CIS-DPI) formulation during these off-cycles to expose the tumour environment for longer to CIS, increasing its effectiveness. This is promising as long as the pulmonary and renal toxicities remain acceptable. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the pulmonary and renal tolerance of CIS-DPI (three times per cycle) and CIS using the intravenous (IV) route (CIS-IV) (one time per cycle) as monotherapies and to optimize their combination in terms of dose and schedule. At the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), combining CIS-DPI and CIS-IV impaired the pulmonary and the renal tolerance. Therefore, pulmonary tolerance was improved when the CIS-IV dose was decreased by 25% (to 1.5 mg/kg) while maintaining the MTD for CIS-DPI. In addition to this dose adjustment, a delay of 24 h between CIS-DPI and CIS-IV administrations limited the acute kidney injury.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/321208/3/IJPB.pdf

 

2020

Inhaled cytotoxic chemotherapy: clinical challenges, recent developments, and future prospects

Wauthoz, N., Rosiere, R., & Amighi, K. (2020). Inhaled cytotoxic chemotherapy: clinical challenges, recent developments, and future prospects. Expert opinion on drug delivery. doi:10.1080/17425247.2021.1829590  

Introduction: Since 1968, inhaled chemotherapy has been evaluated and has shown promising results up to phase II but has not yet reached the market. This is due to technological and clinical challenges that require to be overcome with the aim of optimizing the efficacy and the tolerance of drug to re-open new developments in this field. Moreover, recent changes in the therapeutic standard of care for treating the patient with lung cancer also open new opportunities to combine inhaled chemotherapy with standard treatments. Areas covered: Clinical and technological concerns are highlighted from the reported clinical trials made with inhaled cytotoxic chemotherapies. This work then focuses on new pharmaceutical developments using dry powder inhalers as inhalation devices and on formulation strategies based on controlled drug release and with sustained lung retention or based on nanomedicine. Finally, new clinical strategies are described in regard to the impact of the immunotherapy on the patient's standard of care. Expert opinion: The choice of the drug, inhalation device, and formulation strategy as well as the position of inhaled chemotherapy in the patient's clinical care are crucial factors in optimizing local tolerance and efficacy as well as in its scalability and applicability in clinical practice.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/313876/3/EODD.pdf

 

2019

Targeted PEG-poly(glutamic acid) complexes for inhalation protein delivery to the lung

Nieto-Orellana, A., Li, H., Rosiere, R., Wauthoz, N., Williams, H., Monteiro, C. J., Bosquillon, C., Childerhouse, N., Keegan, G., Coghlan, D., Mantovani, G., & Stolnik, S. (2019). Targeted PEG-poly(glutamic acid) complexes for inhalation protein delivery to the lung. Journal of controlled release, 316, 250-262. doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.10.012  

Pulmonary delivery is increasingly seen as an attractive, non-invasive route for the delivery of forthcoming protein therapeutics. In this context, here we describe protein complexes with a new ‘complexing excipient' - vitamin B12-targeted poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(glutamic acid) copolymers. These form complexes in sub-200 nm size with a model protein, suitable for cellular targeting and intracellular delivery. Initially we confirmed expression of vitamin B12-internalization receptor (CD320) by Calu-3 cells of the in vitro lung epithelial model used, and demonstrated enhanced B12 receptor-mediated cellular internalization of B12-targeted complexes, relative to non-targeted counterparts or protein alone. To develop an inhalation formulation, the protein complexes were spray dried adopting a standard protocol into powders with aerodynamic diameter within the suitable range for lower airway deposition. The cellular internalization of targeted complexes from dry powders applied directly to Calu-3 model was found to be 2-3 fold higher compared to non-targeted complexes. The copolymer complexes show no complement activation, and in vivo lung tolerance studies demonstrated that repeated administration of formulated dry powders over a 3 week period in healthy BALB/c mice induced no significant toxicity or indications of lung inflammation, as assessed by cell population count and quantification of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α pro-inflammatory markers. Importantly, the in vivo data appear to suggest that B12-targeted polymer complexes administered as dry powder enhance lung retention of their protein payload, relative to protein alone and non-targeted counterparts. Taken together, our data illustrate the potential developability of novel B12-targeted poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(glutamic acid) copolymers as excipients suitable to be formulated into a dry powder product for the inhalation delivery of proteins, with no significant lung toxicity, and with enhanced protein retention at their in vivo target tissue.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/296540/4/NietoOrellanaJCR.pdfhttps://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/296540/3/NietoOrellanaJCR.pdf

 

The position of inhaled chemotherapy in the care of patients with lung tumours: clinical feasibility and indications according to recent pharmaceutical progresses

Rosiere, R., Berghmans, T., De Vuyst, P., Amighi, K., & Wauthoz, N. (2019). The position of inhaled chemotherapy in the care of patients with lung tumours: clinical feasibility and indications according to recent pharmaceutical progresses. Cancers, 11(329), 1-13. doi:10.3390/cancers11030329  

Despite new treatment modalities, including targeted therapies and checkpoint inhibitors, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains central in the care of patients with lung tumors. Use of the pulmonary route to deliver chemotherapy has been proved to be feasible and safe in phase I, Ib/IIa and II trials for lung tumors, with the administration of drug doses to the lungs without prior distribution in the organism. The severe systemic toxicities commonly observed with conventional systemic chemotherapy are consequently reduced. However, development has failed in phase II at best. This review first focuses on the causes of failure of inhaled chemotherapy. It then presents new promising technologies able to take up the current challenges. These technologies include the use of a dry powder inhaler or a smart nebulizer with advanced drug formulations such as controlled-release formulations and nanomedicine. Finally, the potential position of inhaled chemotherapy in patient care is discussed and some indications are proposed based on the literature.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/285229/3/cancers-11-00329.pdf

 

Tumor Targeting by Peptide-Decorated Gold Nanoparticles.

Albertini, B., Mathieu, V., Iraci, N., Van Woensel, M., Schoubben, A., Donnadio, A., Greco, S., Ricci, M., Temperini, A., Blasi, P., & Wauthoz, N. (2019). Tumor Targeting by Peptide-Decorated Gold Nanoparticles. Molecular pharmaceutics, 16(6), 2430-2444. doi:10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.9b00047  

Cancer remains one of the most important challenges in biomedical sciences. Chemotherapeutic agents are very potent molecules that exhibit a significant level of toxicity in numerous tissues of the body, particularly in those characterized by high proliferative activity, such as the bone marrow. The scenario is even more complex in the case of the central nervous system, and in particular brain tumors, where the blood brain barrier limits the efficacy of drug therapies. Integrins, transmembrane proteins widely expressed in different types of cancer (glioblastoma, melanoma, and breast cancer), regulate the angiogenic process and play a pivotal role in tumor growth and invasion. Here, we report a nanotechnology strategy based on the use of AuNPs decorated with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-like peptide for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Two hours after administration in mice, the accumulation of the peptide-decorated NPs in the subcutaneous tumor was ∼4-fold higher than that of uncoated particles and ∼1.4-fold higher than that of PEGylated particles. Also, in the case of the intracranial tumor model, interesting results were obtained. Indeed, 2 h after administration, the amount of peptide-decorated particles in the brain was 1.5-fold that of undecorated particles and 5-fold that of PEGylated particles. In conclusion, this preliminary study demonstrates the high potential of this carrier developed for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/288792/4/AlbertiniMolPharm.pdf

 

How to characterize a nasal product. The state of the art of in vitro and ex vivo specific methods

Salade, L., Wauthoz, N., Goole, J., & Amighi, K. (2019). How to characterize a nasal product. The state of the art of in vitro and ex vivo specific methods. International journal of pharmaceutics, 561, 47-65. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.02.026  

Nasal delivery offers many benefits over other conventional routes of delivery (e.g. oral or intravenous administration). Benefits include, among others, a fast onset of action, non-invasiveness and direct access to the central nervous system. The nasal cavity is not only limited to local application (e.g. rhinosinusitis) but can also provide direct access to other sites in the body (e.g. the central nervous system or systemic circulation). However, both the anatomy and the physiology of the nose impose their own limitations, such as a small volume for delivery or rapid mucociliary clearance. To meet nasal-specific criteria, the formulator has to complete a plethora of tests, in vitro and ex vivo, to assess the efficacy and tolerance of a new drug-delivery system. Moreover, depending on the desired therapeutic effect, the delivery of the drug should target a specific pathway that could potentially be achieved through a modified release of this drug. Therefore, this review focuses on specific techniques that should be performed when a nasal formulation is developed. The review covers both the tests recommended by regulatory agencies (e.g. the Food and Drug Administration) and other complementary experiments frequently performed in the field.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/284730/3/1-s2.0-S0378517319301498-main.pdf

 

2018

Impact of capsule type on aerodynamic performance of inhalation products: A case study using a formoterol-lactose binary or ternary blend

Wauthoz, N., Hennia, I., Ecenarro, S., & Amighi, K. (2018). Impact of capsule type on aerodynamic performance of inhalation products: A case study using a formoterol-lactose binary or ternary blend. International journal of pharmaceutics, 553(1-2), 47-56. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.10.034  

The aerodynamic performance of a dry powder for inhalation depends on the formulation and the dry powder inhaler (DPI). In the case of capsule-based DPIs, the capsule also plays a role in the powder aerosolisation and the dispersion of the micronized drug during the inhalation. This study evaluated the impact of gelatine capsules (Quali-G™ and Hard Gelatine Capsules for DPIs), cold-gelled hypromellose (HPMC) capsules (Quali-V®-I and Vcaps®) and thermal-gelled HPMC capsules (Vcaps®Plus) from Qualicaps® and Capsugel® respectively, on the delivered dose (DD), fine particle dose (FPD), and capsule retention for formoterol-lactose binary and ternary blends. This study used a low resistance Axahaler® DPI based on the RS01 design (Plastiape, Italy). Similar trends were observed with the different capsule types that packaged both dry powder formulations. The highest DD and FPD and the lowest formoterol capsule retention were observed with cold-gelled HPMC capsules such as Quali-V-I® and Vcaps®, without significant differences between these capsules (p > 0.05, one-way ANOVA with Newman-Keuls post-hoc test) for both dry powders. Therefore, the capsule composition and manufacturing process have an influence on aerodynamic performance. In addition, the ternary blend showed higher DDs and FPDs but also higher capsule retention in comparison to the binary blend.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/282618/5/2018IJP.pdf

 

Impact of capsule type on aerodynamic performance of inhalation products: A case study using a formoterol-lactose binary or ternary blend.

Wauthoz, N., Hennia, I., Ecenarro, S., & Amighi, K. (2018). Impact of capsule type on aerodynamic performance of inhalation products: A case study using a formoterol-lactose binary or ternary blend. International journal of pharmaceutics, 553(1-2), 47-56. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.10.034  

The aerodynamic performance of a dry powder for inhalation depends on the formulation and the dry powder inhaler (DPI). In the case of capsule-based DPIs, the capsule also plays a role in the powder aerosolisation and the dispersion of the micronized drug during the inhalation. This study evaluated the impact of gelatine capsules (Quali-G™ and Hard Gelatine Capsules for DPIs), cold-gelled hypromellose (HPMC) capsules (Quali-V®-I and Vcaps®) and thermal-gelled HPMC capsules (Vcaps®Plus) from Qualicaps® and Capsugel® respectively, on the delivered dose (DD), fine particle dose (FPD), and capsule retention for formoterol-lactose binary and ternary blends. This study used a low resistance Axahaler® DPI based on the RS01 design (Plastiape, Italy). Similar trends were observed with the different capsule types that packaged both dry powder formulations. The highest DD and FPD and the lowest formoterol capsule retention were observed with cold-gelled HPMC capsules such as Quali-V-I® and Vcaps®, without significant differences between these capsules (p > 0.05, one-way ANOVA with Newman-Keuls post-hoc test) for both dry powders. Therefore, the capsule composition and manufacturing process have an influence on aerodynamic performance. In addition, the ternary blend showed higher DDs and FPDs but also higher capsule retention in comparison to the binary blend.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/314629/5/2018IJP.pdf

 

Chitosan-coated liposome dry-powder formulations loaded with ghrelin for nose-to-brain delivery

Salade, L., Wauthoz, N., Vermeersch, M., Amighi, K., & Goole, J. (2018). Chitosan-coated liposome dry-powder formulations loaded with ghrelin for nose-to-brain delivery. European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, 129, 257-266. doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2018.06.011  

The nose-to-brain delivery of ghrelin loaded in liposomes is a promising approach for the management of cachexia. It could limit the plasmatic degradation of ghrelin and provide direct access to the brain, where ghrelin's specific receptors are located. Anionic liposomes coated with chitosan in either a liquid or a dry-powder formulation were compared. The powder formulation showed stronger adhesion to mucins (89 ± 4% vs 61 ± 4%), higher ghrelin entrapment efficiency (64 ± 2% vs 55 ± 4%), higher enzymatic protection against trypsin (26 ± 2% vs 20 ± 3%) and lower ghrelin storage degradation at 25 °C (2.67 ± 1.1% vs 95.64 ± 0.85% after 4 weeks). The powder formulation was also placed in unit-dose system devices that were able to generate an appropriate aerosol characterized by a Dv50 of 38 ± 6 µm, a limited percentage of particles smaller than 10 µm of 4 ± 1% and a reproducible mass delivery (CV: 1.49%). In addition, the device was able to deposit a large amount of powder (52.04% w/w) in the olfactory zone of a 3D-printed nasal cast. The evaluated combination of the powder formulation and the device could provide a promising treatment for cachexia.

 

La chimiothérapie inhalée - partie 1 : concept et challenges technologiques actuels.

Rosiere, R., Hureaux, J., Levet, V., Amighi, K., & Wauthoz, N. (2018). La chimiothérapie inhalée - partie 1 : concept et challenges technologiques actuels. Revue des maladies respiratoires, 35(4), 357-377. doi:10.1016/j.rmr.2018.02.001  

Despite severe adverse effects, chemotherapy is still widely used in the treatment of lung tumors, including primary lung tumors and metastases. In order to reduce the risk of harm and to intensify treatment responses, several strategies have been described recently. These include the use of nanomedicine-based chemotherapies and pulmonary drug delivery. However, to treat lung tumors, inhalation cannot be effective and safe without an adaptation of current inhalation techniques, i.e. inhalation devices and drug formulations. This can be very challenging. This review presents recent preclinical developments that could address the limitations observed with aerosolized chemotherapy. The solutions involve the use of dry powder inhalers and advanced drug formulations, such as controlled and sustained release formulations and nanomedicine-based formulations.

 

La chimiothérapie inhalée - partie 2 : clinique et applications potentielles.

Rosiere, R., Hureaux, J., Levet, V., Amighi, K., & Wauthoz, N. (2018). La chimiothérapie inhalée - partie 2 : clinique et applications potentielles. Revue des maladies respiratoires, 35(4), 378-389. doi:10.1016/j.rmr.2018.02.002  

Lung tumours have a high incidence and cause many deaths worldwide. Despite progresses in treatment with targeted therapies and immunotherapies, the global 5-year survival rate remains low. In this context, inhaled chemotherapy could provide a means to intensify current therapeutic modalities. This review is based on clinical studies of inhaled chemotherapy against lung tumours. The advantages of this approach in terms of pharmacokinetic ratio and therapeutic index are presented as well as the limitations including contraindications and pulmonary side effects. Moreover, the challenges linked to technical aspects around administration are identified (inhalation device and facilities to limit aerosol propagation and exposure of healthcare professionals). The current developments proposed to overcome these challenges are described briefly. Also discussed are the potential applications for the distribution of the inhaled anticancer drug into tumour-bearing respiratory tracts and finally the potential indications for current therapeutic modalities.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/270863/1/Elsevier_254490.pdf

 

New Folate-Grafted Chitosan Derivative To Improve Delivery of Paclitaxel-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Lung Tumor Therapy by Inhalation.

Rosiere, R., Van Woensel, M., Gelbcke, M., Mathieu, V., Hecq, J., Mathivet, T., Vermeersch, M., Van Antwerpen, P., Amighi, K., & Wauthoz, N. (2018). New Folate-Grafted Chitosan Derivative To Improve Delivery of Paclitaxel-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Lung Tumor Therapy by Inhalation. Molecular pharmaceutics, 15(3), 899-910. doi:10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.7b00846  

Inhaled chemotherapy for the treatment of lung tumors requires that drug delivery systems improve selectivity for cancer cells and tumor penetration and allow sufficient lung residence. To this end, we developed solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) with modified surface properties. We successfully synthesized a new folate-grafted copolymer of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and chitosan, F-PEG-HTCC, with a PEG-graft ratio of 7% and a molecular weight range of 211-250 kDa. F-PEG-HTCC-coated, paclitaxel-loaded SLN were prepared with an encapsulation efficiency, mean diameter, and zeta potential of about 100%, 250 nm, and +32 mV, respectively. The coated SLN entered folate receptor (FR)-expressing HeLa and M109-HiFR cells in vitro and M109 tumors in vivo after pulmonary delivery. The coated SLN significantly decreased the in vitro half-maximum inhibitory concentrations of paclitaxel in M109-HiFR cells (60 vs 340 nM, respectively). We demonstrated that FR was involved in these improvements, especially in M109-HiFR cells. After pulmonary delivery in vivo, the coated SLN had a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, with pulmonary exposure to paclitaxel prolonged to up to 6 h and limited systemic distribution. Our preclinical findings therefore demonstrated the positive impact of the coated SLN on the delivery of paclitaxel by inhalation.

 

2017

Development of coated liposomes loaded with ghrelin for nose-to-brain delivery for the treatment of cachexia

Salade, L., Wauthoz, N., Deleu, M., Vermeersch, M., De Vriese, C., Amighi, K., & Goole, J. (2017). Development of coated liposomes loaded with ghrelin for nose-to-brain delivery for the treatment of cachexia. International Journal of Nanomedicine (Online), 12, 8531—8543. doi:10.2147/IJN.S147650  

The aim of the present study was to develop a ghrelin-containing formulation based on liposomes coated with chitosan intended for nose-brain delivery for the treatment of cachexia. Among the three types of liposomes developed, anionic liposomes provided the best results in terms of encapsulation efficiency (56%) and enzymatic protection against trypsin (20.6% vs 0% for ghrelin alone) and carboxylesterase (81.6% vs 17.2% for ghrelin alone). Ghrelin presented both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with the anionic lipid bilayer, as demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Then, anionic liposomes were coated with N-(2-hydroxy)propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride. The coating involved a size increment from 146.9±2.7 to 194±6.1 nm, for uncoated and coated liposomes, respectively. The ζ-potential was similarly increased from -0.3±1.2 mV to 6±0.4 mV before and after coating, respectively. Chitosan provided mucoadhesion, with an increase in mucin adsorption of 22.9%. Enhancement of permeation through the Calu3 epithelial monolayer was also observed with 10.8% of ghrelin recovered in the basal compartment in comparison to 0% for ghrelin alone. Finally, aerosols generated from two nasal devices (VP3 and SP270) intended for aqueous dispersion were characterized with either coated or uncoated liposomes. Contrarily to the SP270 device, VP3 device showed minor changes between coated and uncoated liposome aerosols, as shown by their median volume diameters of 38.4±5.76 and 37.6±5.74 µm, respectively. Overall, the results obtained in this study show that the developed formulation delivered by the VP3 device can be considered as a potential candidate for nose-brain delivery of ghrelin.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/261537/4/doi_245164.pdf

 

Proposed algorithm for healthcare professionals based on product characteristics and in vitro performances in different use conditions using formoterol-based marketed products for inhalation.

Wauthoz, N., Hennia, I., Dejaegher, B., Ecenarro, S., & Amighi, K. (2017). Proposed algorithm for healthcare professionals based on product characteristics and in vitro performances in different use conditions using formoterol-based marketed products for inhalation. International journal of pharmaceutics, 530(1-2), 415-429. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2017.07.021  

Healthcare professionals require an easy algorithm for selecting the most appropriate inhalation product for each patient at the beginning of a treatment. As a case study, we selected five marketed formoterol products: Foradil® and Formagal®, capsule-based dry powder inhalers (DPIs), Novolizer® Formoterol and Oxis®, reservoir-based DPIs and Formoair®, a pressurized metered dose inhaler. We generated an algorithm based on device properties (i.e. device handling, feedback and remaining dose/end of product indication) and in vitro aerodynamic performances (i) along the product use life in optimal conditions, (ii) at different airflows and (iii) after exposing pre-loaded doses to 40 °C and 75% relative humidity for 4 h. Based on these results, an algorithm was built where Formoair and Formagal can be proposed when there is high risk of humidity and for patients presenting suboptimal or optimal airflows. When no risk of humidity is present, Formoair, Foradil, Formagal and Novolizer Formoterol equipped with a trigger valve could be proposed for patients presenting suboptimal airflows. When no risk of humidity is present and for patients presenting optimal airflow, all products, including Oxis, could be proposed. Ultimately, the optimal inhalation product will be selected after checking the patient's preference and capacity for correct device handling and inhalation technique.

 

Stealth nanocarriers based sterosomes using PEG post-insertion process

Cieslak, A., Wauthoz, N., Orellana, A. N., Lautram, N., Béjaud, J., Hureaux, J., Lafleur, M., Benoit, J.-P., Salomon, C. J., & Bastiat, G. (2017). Stealth nanocarriers based sterosomes using PEG post-insertion process. European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, 115, 31-38. doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2017.02.008  

Sterosomes (STEs), a new and promising non-phospholipidic liposome platform based on palmitic acid (PA) and cholesterol (Chol) mixtures, need to have polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains grafted to their surface in order to obtain long-circulating nanocarriers in the blood stream. A post-insertion method was chosen to achieve this modification. The post-insertion process of PEG-modified distearoylphosphoethanolamine (DSPE-PEG) was monitored using the zeta potential value of STEs. Various conditions including PEG chain length and the DSPE-PEG/PA-Chol ratio, were explored. Zeta potential of STEs changed from about −40 mV for non-modified STEs to values close to 0 mV by the end of the process, i.e. for PEG-modified STEs. The kinetics of DSPE-PEG insertion and the stability of the resulting PEG-modified STEs were not considerably influenced, within the investigated range, by changes in PEG chain lengths and in DSPE-PEG/PA-Chol proportion. The post-insertion of PEG chains reduced in vitro complement activation as well as in vitro macrophage uptake compared to the non-modified STEs. Moreover, longer blood circulation time in mice was established for PEG-modified STEs intravenously injected compared to non-modified STEs. These results establish that post-insertion process of PEG chains to STEs is a promising strategy for developing long-term circulating drug delivery nanocarriers.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/249640/1/Elsevier_233267.pdf

 

Sensitization of glioblastoma tumor micro-environment to chemo- and immunotherapy by Galectin-1 intranasal knock-down strategy

Van Woensel, M., Mathivet, T., Wauthoz, N., Rosiere, R., Garg, A. D., Agostinis, P., Mathieu, V., Kiss, R., Lefranc, F., Boon, L., Belmans, J., Van Gool, S. W., Gerhardt, H., Amighi, K., & De Vleeschouwer, S. (2017). Sensitization of glioblastoma tumor micro-environment to chemo- and immunotherapy by Galectin-1 intranasal knock-down strategy. Scientific Reports, 27(1), 1217. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-01279-1  

In this study, we evaluated the consequences of reducing Galectin-1 (Gal-1) in the tumor micro-environment (TME) of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), via nose-to-brain transport. Gal-1 is overexpressed in GBM and drives chemo- and immunotherapy resistance. To promote nose-to-brain transport, we designed siRNA targeting Gal-1 (siGal-1) loaded chitosan nanoparticles that silence Gal-1 in the TME. Intranasal siGal-1 delivery induces a remarkable switch in the TME composition, with reduced myeloid suppressor cells and regulatory T cells, and increased CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Gal-1 knock-down reduces macrophages' polarization switch from M1 (pro-inflammatory) to M2 (anti-inflammatory) during GBM progression. These changes are accompanied by normalization of the tumor vasculature and increased survival for tumor bearing mice. The combination of siGal-1 treatment with temozolomide or immunotherapy (dendritic cell vaccination and PD-1 blocking) displays synergistic effects, increasing the survival of tumor bearing mice. Moreover, we could confirm the role of Gal-1 on lymphocytes in GBM patients by matching the Gal-1 expression and their T cell signatures. These findings indicate that intranasal siGal-1 nanoparticle delivery could be a valuable adjuvant treatment to increase the efficiency of immune-checkpoint blockade and chemotherapy.

 

Optimization and Scaling-Up of ITZ-based Dry Powders for Inhalation

Merlos, R., Wauthoz, N., Levet, V., Belhassan, L., Sebti, T., Vanderbist, F., & Amighi, K. (2017). Optimization and Scaling-Up of ITZ-based Dry Powders for Inhalation. Journal of drug delivery science and technology, 37, 147-157. doi:10.1016/j.jddst.2016.12.009  

Dry powders for inhalation with amorphous itraconazole (ITZ) dispersed in a hydrophilic matrix were previously obtained by the spray-drying technique. This gave interesting aerodynamic and dissolution characteristics leading to promising lung pharmacokinetic and prophylaxis efficacy in a preclinical model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The spray-drying allows dry powder to be obtained in a one-step process; nonetheless, the scale-up still presents a challenge in maintaining the main particle characteristics. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of obtaining similar powder characteristics from concentrated solutions using laboratory-scale and pilot-scale spray dryer equipment. ITZ was solubilized in a solvent mixture (ethanol/ethyl acetate/water mixture 40:40:20 v/v/v) in mannitol solutions or suspensions. These mixtures were spray dried at laboratory scale to produce a solid dispersion for inhalation (SDI) containing amorphous ITZ dispersed in a mannitol matrix. A solution of 35% (So1) w/w ITZ was chosen to evaluate the scale-up process. This formulation was chosen for its high yield (60%), its amorphous ITZ content (100%), its good aerodynamic behavior (fine particle fraction - FPF = 33± 2%) and its increased dissolution profile compared to bulk ITZ. The scale-up process showed pilot-scale dry powders with a higher yield than lab-scale dry powders and similar aerodynamic performance and equivalent dissolution profiles. Moreover, all SDIs displayed improved release kinetics in comparison with bulk ITZ. Despite the slight differences between lab- and pilot-scale SDIs, this study shows that the scaling-up process allowed interesting ITZ-based SDIs to be obtained, in order to achieve pilot-scale production.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/239528/3/Elsevier_223155.pdf

 

Platinum pharmacokinetics in mice following inhalation of cisplatin dry powders with different release and lung retention properties

Levet, V., Merlos, R., Rosiere, R., Amighi, K., & Wauthoz, N. (2017). Platinum pharmacokinetics in mice following inhalation of cisplatin dry powders with different release and lung retention properties. International journal of pharmaceutics, 517, 359-372. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.12.037  

Pharmacokinetics of cisplatin administered by the pulmonary route were established in mice using dry powders inhaler (DPI) formulations showing immediate (F1) and controlled release (CR, solid lipid microparticles) in vitro, without (F2) or with PEGylated excipients (F3, F4). Formulation administration was realized using dry powder blends (correspondingly named thereafter F1B to F4B) able to reproducibly deliver particles in vivo using a DP-4M Dry Powder Insufflator™. Their platinum pharmacokinetics were established over 48 h in lungs, total blood and non-target organs vs. IV and endotracheal nebulization (EN). EN and F1B were rapidly distributed from the lungs (t1/2 i 2.6 and 5.0 min). F2B was eliminated in ∼1 h (t1/2 i 9.0 min). F3B lung retention was sustained for ∼7 h (t1/2 i 59.9 min), increasing lung AUC 11-, 4- and 3-fold vs. IV, F1B and F2B. Total blood tmax were higher and AUC and Cmax lower using the pulmonary route vs. IV. Kidney Cmax was reduced 6-, 2- and 3-fold for F1B, F2B and F3B. AUC in kidneys were 2- to 3-fold lower for F1B and F2B vs. IV but comparable for IV vs. F3B, probably because of kidney saturation. PEGylated solid lipid microparticles provided cisplatin particles with interesting lung retention and CR properties.

 

2016

Rosuvastatin and vascular oxidative stress induced by diesel exhaust particles

Labranche, N., Youl, E., El Khattabi, C., Dewachter, L., Wauthoz, N., Delporte, C., Berkenboom, G., & Pochet, S. (2016). Rosuvastatin and vascular oxidative stress induced by diesel exhaust particles. Acta cardiologica, 71(5), 565 - 572. doi:10.2143/AC.71.5.3167500  

Objective: Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is strongly linked to the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular diseases. Statins are effective drugs in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of rosuvastatin on DEP-induced endothelial dysfunction.Methods and results: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated for 5 weeks with rosuvastatin and exposed, intratracheally, for the last 4 weeks, to either DEP suspensions or saline vehicle. Rings of thoracic aortas were used to assess superoxide anion production through the lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence technique. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed on aortic segments to assess eNOS, iNOS, p22phox, gp91phox, Rac-1 and TNF-α mRNA expression. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were also used for the measurement of oxidative stress after DEP and/or rosuvastatin incubation. In thoracic aortic rings isolated from SHR, superoxide anion formation was increased after DEP exposure. This oxidative stress was markedly decreased in the rosuvastatin-treated group. DEP exposure also induced a downregulation of eNOS mRNA expression and a slight increase in gp91phox mRNA expression, which were reversed in the rosuvastatin group. In HUVECs, similar results were observed: DEP generated an accumulation of superoxide anion, which was significantly attenuated by rosuvastatin.Conclusions: Our results suggest that rosuvastatin interacts with the eNOS and NADPH oxidase pathways in hypertensive rats and therefore might counteract the oxidative stress induced by DEP. This effect was also observed in vitro in human endothelial cells (HUVECs).

 

Development of siRNA-loaded chitosan nanoparticles targeting Galectin-1 for the treatment of gliobmastoma multiforme via intranasal administration

Van Woensel, M., Wauthoz, N., Rosiere, R., Mathieu, V., Kiss, R., Lefranc, F., Steelant, B., Van Gool, S. W., Mathivet, T., Gerhardt, H., Amighi, K., & De Vleeschouwer, S. (2016). Development of siRNA-loaded chitosan nanoparticles targeting Galectin-1 for the treatment of gliobmastoma multiforme via intranasal administration. Journal of controlled release, 227, 71-81. doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.02.032  

Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is a naturally occurring galactose-binding lectin, which is overexpressed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Gal-1 is associated with tumor progression, and is a potent immune suppressor in the tumor micro-environment. To inhibit Gal-1 in GBM, an effective therapy is required that reaches the central nervous system tumor, with limited systemic effects. In this study, we report for the first time that concentrated chitosan nanoparticle suspensions can deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA) into the central nervous system tumor within hours after intranasal administration. These nanoparticles are able to complex siRNA targeting Gal-1 to a high percentage, and protect them from RNAse degradation. Moreover, a successful intracellular delivery of anti-Gal-1 siRNA resulted in a decreased expression of Gal-1 in both murine and human GBM cells. Sequence specific RNAinterference, resulted in more than 50% Gal-1 reduction in tumor bearing mice. This study indicates that the intranasal pathway is an underexplored transport route for delivering siRNA-based therapies targeting Gal-1 in the treatment of GBM.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/220572/3/VanWoenseletalJCR.pdf

 

Quantitative assay of capreomycin oleate levels in a drug formulation for inhalation with a fully validated HPLC method

Ianni, F., Schoubben, A., Montesano, D., Wauthoz, N., Cossignani, L., Sardella, R., & Natalini, B. (2016). Quantitative assay of capreomycin oleate levels in a drug formulation for inhalation with a fully validated HPLC method. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 120, 413-418. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2015.11.040  

Capreomycin sulfate (CS), a mixture of 4 closely related compounds (powder mainly comprised of 2 forms), commonly injected intramuscularly is intended to be administer by inhalation for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.In order to increase the drug residence time in the lung, capreomycin hydrophobicity was enhanced by substituting sulfate with oleate, thus obtaining capreomycin oleate (CO). The generation of a more hydrophobic ion-pair allows the reduction of the drug solubilisation in the bronchoalveolar fluids as well as its systemic absorption.The aim of the present study was to quantify CO in an in-house prepared drug formulation for inhalation. In this regard, a Hydrophilic Liquid Interaction Chromatography (HILIC) method was optimized with acetonitrile (ACN)/water containing eluents and a diol-type stationary phase. The optimal eluent composition [ACN/water-80/20 (v/v), 20 mM ammonium formate, 3.0 wspH] produced a good separation (α equal to 1.15) between the two main peaks. The developed HILIC method succeeded in the quantitative assay of CO in the drug formulation and was fully validated. Very good precision and accuracy in the short- and long-period along with appreciably low LOD and LOQ values (respectively 1.75 and 5.25 μg/mL) turned out.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/220580/5/Elsevier_204207.pdf

 

Development and evaluation of well-tolerated and tumor-penetrating polymeric micelle-based dry powders for inhaled anti-cancer chemotherapy.

Rosiere, R., Van Woensel, M., Mathieu, V., Langer, I., Mathivet, T., Vermeersch, M., Amighi, K., & Wauthoz, N. (2016). Development and evaluation of well-tolerated and tumor-penetrating polymeric micelle-based dry powders for inhaled anti-cancer chemotherapy. International journal of pharmaceutics. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.01.073  

Despite the direct access to the lung offered by the inhalation route, drug penetration into lung tumors could remain an important issue. In this study, folate-polyethylene glycol-hydrophobically-modified dextran (F-PEG-HMD) micelles were developed as an effective pulmonary drug delivery system to reach and penetrate lung tumors and cancer cells. The F-PEG-HMD micelles were able to enter HeLa and M109-HiFR, two folate receptor-expressing cancer cell lines, in vitro, and in vivo after administration by inhalation to orthotopic M109-HiFR lung tumor grafted mice. Paclitaxel-loaded F-PEG-HMD micelles characterized in PBS by a Z-average diameter of ∼50nm and a zeta potential of ∼-4mV were prepared with an encapsulation efficiency of ∼100%. The loaded micelles reduced HeLa and M109-HiFR cell growth, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations of 37 and 150nM, respectively. Dry powders embedding the paclitaxel-loaded F-PEG-HMD micelles were developed by spray-drying. In vitro, good deposition profiles were obtained, with a fine particle fraction of up to 50% and good ability to re-disperse the micelles in physiological buffer. A polymeric micelle-based dry powder without paclitaxel was well-tolerated in vivo, as assessed in healthy mice by determination of total protein content, cell count, and cytokine IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/226441/1/Elsevier_210068.pdf

 

Development of Controlled-Release Cisplatin Dry Powders for Inhalation against Lung Cancers

Levet, V., Rosiere, R., Merlos, R., Fusaro, L., Berger, G., Amighi, K., & Wauthoz, N. (2016). Development of Controlled-Release Cisplatin Dry Powders for Inhalation against Lung Cancers. International journal of pharmaceutics, 515(1-2), 209-220. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.10.019  

The present study focuses on the development of dry powders for inhalation as adjuvant chemotherapy in lung cancer treatment. Cisplatin was chosen as a potential candidate for a local treatment as it remains the main platinum component used in conventional chemotherapies, despite its high and cumulative systemic toxicities. Bulk cisplatin was reduced to submicron sizes using high-pressure homogenization, mixed with a solubilized lipid and/or PEGylated component and then spray-dried to produce controlled-release dry powder formulations. The obtained formulations were characterized for their physicochemical properties (particle size and morphology), aerodynamic performance and release profiles. Cisplatin content and integrity were assessed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and 195Pt nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. DPI formulations with cisplatin contents ranging from 48.5 to 101.0% w/w exhibited high fine particle fractions ranging from 37.3% to 51.5% of the nominal dose. Formulations containing cisplatin microcrystals dispersed in solid lipid microparticles based on acceptable triglycerides for inhalation and PEGylated excipients showed a controlled-release for more than 24 h and a limited burst effect. These new formulations could provide an interesting approach to increasing and prolonging drug exposure in the lung while minimizing systemic toxicities.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/238807/3/Levet.pdf

 

2015

New dry powders for inhalation containing temozolomide-based nanomicelles for improved lung cancer therapy.

Rosiere, R., Gelbcke, M., Mathieu, V., Van Antwerpen, P., Amighi, K., & Wauthoz, N. (2015). New dry powders for inhalation containing temozolomide-based nanomicelles for improved lung cancer therapy. International journal of oncology, 47(3), 1131. doi:10.3892/ijo.2015.3092  

Besides the numerous advantages of a chemotherapy administered by the inhalation route for lung cancer therapy, dry powder for inhalation (DPI) offers many advantages compared to other techniques and seems to be a technique that is well-adapted to an anticancer treatment. DPI formulations were developed using the cytotoxic drug temozolomide and a new folate-grafted self-assembling copolymer, a conjugate of three components, folate-polyethylene glycol-hydrophobically-modified dextran (F-PEG-HMD). F-PEG-HMD was synthesized using carbodiimide-mediated coupling chemistry in three main steps. F-PEG-HMD was characterized by 1H-NMR, mass spectrometry and thermal analysis. F-PEG-HMD presented a critical micellar concentration in water of 4x10-7 M. F-PEG-HMD nanomicelles were characterized by a trimodal particle size distribution with Z-average diameter of 83±1 nm in water. Temozolomide-loaded nanomicelles were prepared by solubilization of F-PEG-HMD in the presence of temozolomide. Temozolomide solubility in water was increased in the presence of F-PEG-HMD (2-fold increase in molar solubility) which could potentially lead to increased local concentrations in the tumor site. The temozolomide-loaded F-PEG-HMD nanomicelles were characterized by a Z-average diameter of ~50 to ~60 nm, depending on the F-PEG-HMD concentration used. The nanomicelles were then spray-dried to produce dry powders. Temozolomide remained stable during all the formulation steps, confirmed by similar in vitro anticancer properties for the DPI formulations and a raw temozolomide solution. Two of the developed DPI formulations were characterized by good aerodynamic properties (with a fine particle fraction of up to 50%) and were able to release the F-PEG-HMD nanomicelles quickly in aqueous media. Moreover, in vitro, the two DPI formulations showed wide pulmonary deposition in the lower respiratory tract where adenocarcinomas are more often found. The present study, therefore, shows that F-PEG-HMD-based dry powders for inhalation could constitute an interesting drug delivery system able to release nanomicelles that are useful in adenocarcinomas that overexpress folate receptors.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/207035/3/IntJOncol2015.pdf

 

Safe lipid nanocapsules-based gel technology to target lymph nodes and combat mediastinal metastases from an orthotopic non-small-cell lung cancer model in SCID-CB17 mice

Wauthoz, N., Bastiat, G., Moysan, E., Cieslak, A., Kondo, K., Zandecki, M., Moal, V., Rousselet, M.-C., Hureaux, J., & Benoit, J.-P. (2015). Safe lipid nanocapsules-based gel technology to target lymph nodes and combat mediastinal metastases from an orthotopic non-small-cell lung cancer model in SCID-CB17 mice. Nanomedicine, 11(5), 1237-1245. doi:10.1016/j.nano.2015.02.010  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/188859/2/Nanomedicinepreprint.docx.dochttps://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/188859/3/Nanomedicinepostprint.docx

 

2014

Recent developments in inhaled triazoles against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

Merlos, R., Amighi, K., & Wauthoz, N. (2014). Recent developments in inhaled triazoles against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Current Fungal Infection Reports, 8(4), 331-342. doi:10.1007/s12281-014-0199-5  

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a fungal infection that is seen with particular frequency in immunocompromised patients, and associated with high rates of mortality. To combat or prevent IPA, triazoles such as voriconazole or itraconazole and posaconazole have become accepted as first- and second-line therapy, respectively. However, triazoles are associated with issues of oral bioavailability, high liver metabolism, and/or drug-drug interactions, increasing the variability of systemic concentrations. As a way to overcome these issues, inhalation appears to be a promising route for delivery of triazoles for prophylactic or curative therapy in IPA. Indeed, pulmonary drug delivery drastically increases the drug in situ while decreasing the systemic exposure, thereby limiting drug metabolization, side effects, and drug-drug interactions. The development of triazoles for inhalation has focused on voriconazole and itraconazole, drugs which are both highly permeable but with significant different solubility. In this review, we describe the most advanced and promising pharmaceutical developments for voriconazole and itraconazole.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/176062/6/2014Merlospreprint.pdf

 

Phospholipids in pulmonary drug delivery

Wauthoz, N., & Amighi, K. (2014). Phospholipids in pulmonary drug delivery. European journal of lipid science and technology, 116(9), 1114-1128. doi:10.1002/ejlt.201300368  

Pulmonary delivery is becoming the standard route of administration for treating respiratory disorders such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is also gaining interest for non-invasive systemic delivery of peptides and proteins. A limited number of excipients is approved or authorized for the pulmonary tract. This restricts the commercial potential of some formulations. Phospholipids and more particularly 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) are the main components of lung surfactant and are recognized as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) excipients for pulmonary drug delivery by the Food and Drug Administration. Moreover, phospholipids could modulate the physicochemical properties of drug delivery systems and therefore the drug release and/or dissolution. They can potentially modulate the drug pharmacokinetic by enhancing the drug permeability through the lung epithelium using palmitoyl-based phospholipids, and/or by reducing recognition of the drug delivery systems by the alveolar macrophages by including DPPC or polyethyleneglycol (PEG) at their surface. Therefore, this review focuses on the formulations containing phospholipids or PEGylated phospholipids, such as micelles, liposomes, lipid micro-/nanoparticles, large porous particles, solid dispersions, and microparticle suspensions.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/176060/3/2014Wauthozpreprint.docxhttps://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/176060/6/176060.pdf

 

Pharmacokinetic evaluation in mice of amorphous itraconazole-based dry powder formulations for inhalation with high bioavailability and extended lung retention.

Duret, C., Merlos, R., Wauthoz, N., Sebti, T., Vanderbist, F., & Amighi, K. (2014). Pharmacokinetic evaluation in mice of amorphous itraconazole-based dry powder formulations for inhalation with high bioavailability and extended lung retention. European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, 86(1), 46-54. doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2013.03.005  

Three Itraconazole (ITZ) dry powders for inhalation (DPI) were prepared by spray-drying a mannitol solution in which the ITZ was in suspension (F1) or was in solution without (F2) or with phospholipid (PL) (F3). These powders were endotracheally insufflated in vivo at a single dose of 0.5mg/kg for pharmacokinetic profile (lung and plasma concentration) determination in ICR CD-1 mice. ITZ was crystalline in F1 and assumed to be amorphous in the F2 and F3 formulations. The amorphous nature of ITZ in F2 and F3 formulations allowed the in vitro formation of an ITZ supersaturated solution with a maximum solubility of 450±124ng/ml (F2) and 498±44ng/ml (F3), in contrast to formulation F1 (<10ng/ml). As a result of these higher solubilities, absorption into the systemic compartment after endotracheal administration was faster for formulations F2 and F3 (shorter tmax) and in larger quantities compared to the F1 formulation (plasmatic AUC0-24h of 182ngh/ml, 491.5ngh/ml and 376.8ngh/ml, and tmax of 60min, 30min and 5min for F1, F2 and F3, respectively). PL increased the systemic bioavailability of ITZ (determined by the AUCplasma to AUClung ratio) as a consequence of their wetting and absorption enhancement effect. ITZ lung concentrations after pulmonary administration remained higher than the targeted dose, based on the minimal inhibitory concentrations for Aspergillus Fumigatus (2μg/gwetlung), 24h post-administration for both F1 and F2 formulations. However, this was not the case for formulation F3, which exhibited a faster elimination rate from the lung, with an elimination half-life of 4.1h vs. 6.5h and 14.7h for F1 and F2, respectively.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/143342/3/Elsevier_126987.pdf

 

2013

Ophiobolin A, a sesterterpenoid fungal phytotoxin, displays higher in vitro growth-inhibitory effects in mammalian than in plant cells and displays in vivo antitumor activity.

Bury, M., Novo-Uzal, E., Andolfi, A., Cimini, S., Wauthoz, N., Heffeter, P., Lallemand, B., Avolio, F., Delporte, C., Cimmino, A., Dubois, J., Van Antwerpen, P., Zonno, M. C., Vurro, M., Poumay, Y., Berger, W., Evidente, A., De Gara, L., Kiss, R., & Locato, V. (2013). Ophiobolin A, a sesterterpenoid fungal phytotoxin, displays higher in vitro growth-inhibitory effects in mammalian than in plant cells and displays in vivo antitumor activity. International journal of oncology, 43(2), 575-585. doi:10.3892/ijo.2013.1979  

Ophiobolin A, a sesterterpenoid produced by plant pathogenic fungi, was purified from the culture extract of Drechslera gigantea and tested for its growth-inhibitory activity in both plant and mammalian cells. Ophiobolin A induced cell death in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2 (TBY-2) cells at concentrations ≥10 µM, with the TBY-2 cells showing typical features of apoptosis-like cell death. At a concentration of 5 µM, ophiobolin A did not affect plant cell viability but prevented cell proliferation. When tested on eight cancer cell lines, concentrations <1 µM of ophiobolin A inhibited growth by 50% after 3 days of culture irrespective of their multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes and their resistance levels to pro-apoptotic stimuli. It is, thus, unlikely that ophiobolin A exerts these in vitro growth-inhibitory effects in cancer cells by activating pro-apoptotic processes. Highly proliferative human keratinocytes appeared more sensitive to the growth-inhibitory effects of ophiobolin A than slowly proliferating ones. Ophiobolin A also displayed significant antitumor activity at the level of mouse survival when assayed at 10 mg/kg in the B16F10 mouse melanoma model with lung pseudometastases. Ophiobolin A could, thus, represent a novel scaffold to combat cancer types that display various levels of resistance to pro-apoptotic stimuli and/or various MDR phenotypes.

 

Cyclic versus Hemi-Bastadins. Pleiotropic Anti-Cancer Effects: from Apoptosis to Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Migratory Effects.

Mathieu, V., Wauthoz, N., Lefranc, F., Niemann, H., Amighi, K., Kiss, R., & Proksch, P. (2013). Cyclic versus Hemi-Bastadins. Pleiotropic Anti-Cancer Effects: from Apoptosis to Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Migratory Effects. Molecules, 18(3), 3543-3561. doi:10.3390/molecules18033543  

Bastadins-6, -9 and -16 isolated from the marine sponge Ianthella basta displayed in vitro cytostatic and/or cytotoxic effects in six human and mouse cancer cell lines. The in vitro growth inhibitory effects of these bastadins were similar in cancer cell lines sensitive to pro-apoptotic stimuli versus cancer cell lines displaying various levels of resistance to pro-apoptotic stimuli. While about ten times less toxic than the natural cyclic bastadins, the synthetically derived 5,5'-dibromohemibastadin-1 (DBHB) displayed not only in vitro growth inhibitory activity in cancer cells but also anti-angiogenic properties. At a concentration of one tenth of its in vitro growth inhibitory concentration, DBHB displayed actual antimigratory effects in mouse B16F10 melanoma cells without any sign of cytotoxicity and/or growth inhibition. The serum concentration used in the cell culture media markedly influenced the DBHB-induced antimigratory effects in the B16F10 melanoma cell population. We are currently developing a specific inhalation formulation for DBHB enabling this compound to avoid plasmatic albumin binding through its direct delivery to the lungs to combat primary as well as secondary (metastases) tumors.

 

Synthesis and plasma pharmacokinetics in CD-1 mice of a 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid derivative displaying anti-cancer activity

Lallemand, B., Ouedraogo, M., Wauthoz, N., Lamkami, T., Mathieu, V., Jabin, I., Amighi, K., Kiss, R., Dubois, J., & Goole, J. (2013). Synthesis and plasma pharmacokinetics in CD-1 mice of a 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid derivative displaying anti-cancer activity. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 65(3), 402-410. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7158.2012.01603.x  

Objectives The plasma pharmacokinetic profile in CD-1 mice of a novel 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) derivative, which displays in vitro anti-cancer activity, was assessed. Methods This study involved an original one-step synthesis of N-(2-{3-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ureido}ethyl)- glycyrrhetinamide, (2) a compound that displays marked anti-proteasome and anti-kinase activity. The bioselectivity profile of 2 on human normal NHDF fibroblasts vs human U373 glioblastoma cells was assessed. Maximal tolerated dose (MTD) profiling of 2 was carried out in CD1 mice, and its serum pharmacokinetics were profiled using an acute intravenous administration of 40 mg/kg body weight. Key findings Compound 2 displayed IC50 in vitro growth inhibitory concentrations of 29 and 8 μm on NHDF fibroblasts and U373 glioblastoma cells, respectively, thus a bioselectivity index of ∼4. The intravenous pharmacokinetic parameters revealed that 2 was rapidly distributed (t1/2dist of ∼3 min) but slowly eliminated (t1/2elim = ∼77 min). Conclusions This study describes an original and reliable nanoemulsion of a GA derivative with both anti-proteasome and anti-kinase properties and that should be further tested in vivo using various human xenograft or murine syngeneic tumour models with both single and chronic intravenous administration. © 2012. Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/167740/4/167740.pdf

 

Formulations for Intranasal Delivery of Pharmacological Agents to Combat Brain Disease: A New Opportunity to Tackle GBM?

Van Woensel, M., Wauthoz, N., Rosiere, R., Amighi, K., Mathieu, V., Lefranc, F., Van Gool, S. W., & De Vleeschouwer, S. (2013). Formulations for Intranasal Delivery of Pharmacological Agents to Combat Brain Disease: A New Opportunity to Tackle GBM? Cancers (Basel), 5(3), 1020-1048. doi:10.3390/cancers5031020  

Despite recent advances in tumor imaging and chemoradiotherapy, the median overall survival of patients diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme does not exceed 15 months. Infiltration of glioma cells into the brain parenchyma, and the blood-brain barrier are important hurdles to further increase the efficacy of classic therapeutic tools. Local administration methods of therapeutic agents, such as convection enhanced delivery and intracerebral injections, are often associated with adverse events. The intranasal pathway has been proposed as a non-invasive alternative route to deliver therapeutics to the brain. This route will bypass the blood-brain barrier and limit systemic side effects. Upon presentation at the nasal cavity, pharmacological agents reach the brain via the olfactory and trigeminal nerves. Recently, formulations have been developed to further enhance this nose-to-brain transport, mainly with the use of nanoparticles. In this review, the focus will be on formulations of pharmacological agents, which increase the nasal permeation of hydrophilic agents to the brain, improve delivery at a constant and slow release rate, protect therapeutics from degradation along the pathway, increase mucoadhesion, and facilitate overall nasal transport. A mounting body of evidence is accumulating that the underexplored intranasal delivery route might represent a major breakthrough to combat glioblastoma.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/156761/4/doi_141768.pdf

 

2012

New Inhalation-Optimized Itraconazole Nanoparticle-Based Dry Powders for the Treatment of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

Duret, C., Wauthoz, N., Sebti, T., Vanderbist, F., & Amighi, K. (2012). New Inhalation-Optimized Itraconazole Nanoparticle-Based Dry Powders for the Treatment of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis. International journal of nanomedicine, 7, 5475-5489. doi:10.2147/IJN.S34091  

Purpose: Itraconazole (ITZ) dry powders for inhalation (DPI) composed of nanoparticles (NP) embedded in carrier microparticles were prepared and characterized. Methods: DPIs were initially produced by reducing the ITZ particle size to the nanometer range using high-pressure homogenization with tocopherol polyethylene 1000 succinate (TPGS, 10% w/w ITZ) as a stabilizer. The optimized nanosuspension and the initial microsuspension were then spray-dried with different proportions of or in the absence of mannitol and/or sodium taurocholate. DPI characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy for morphology, laser diffraction to evaluate the size-reduction process, and the size of the dried NP when reconstituted in aqueous media, impaction studies using a multistage liquid impactor to determine the aerodynamic performance and fine-particle fraction that is theoretically able to reach the lung, and dissolution studies to determine the solubility of ITZ. Results: Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the DPI particles were composed of mannitol microparticles with embedded nano- or micro-ITZ crystals. The formulations prepared from the nanosuspension exhibited good flow properties and better fine-particle fractions, ranging from 46.2% ± 0.5% to 63.2% ± 1.7% compared to the 23.1% ± 0.3% that was observed with the formulation produced from the initial microsuspension. Spray-drying affected the NP size by inducing irreversible aggregation, which was able to be minimized by the addition of mannitol and sodium taurocholate before the drying procedure. The ITZ NP-based DPI considerably increased the ITZ solubility (58 ± 2 increased to 96 ± 1 ng/mL) compared with that of raw ITZ or an ITZ microparticle-based DPI (,10 ng/mL). Conclusion: Embedding ITZ NP in inhalable microparticles is a very effective method to produce DPI formulations with optimal aerodynamic properties and enhanced ITZ solubility. These formulations could be applied to other poorly water-soluble drugs and could be a very effective alternative for treating invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. © 2012 Cárdenas et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/128954/4/doi_110746.pdf

 

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a dry powder endotracheal insufflator device for use in dose-dependent preclinical studies in mice.

Duret, C., Wauthoz, N., Merlos, R., Goole, J., Maris, C., Roland, I., Sebti, T., Vanderbist, F., & Amighi, K. (2012). In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a dry powder endotracheal insufflator device for use in dose-dependent preclinical studies in mice. European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, 81(3), 627-634. doi:10.1016/j.ejpb.2012.04.004  

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Penn-Century Dry Powder Insufflator for mice (DP-4M®) to reproducibly, uniformly, and deeply deliver dry powders for inhalation in the mouse lung. Itraconazole-based dry powder formulations produced by spray-drying were different in terms of composition (different ratios of drug and mannitol, with or without phospholipids), but relatively similar in terms of particle size and mass median aerodynamic diameter. The ability of the dry powder insufflator to disaggregate each formulation was the same, indicated by the absence of a statistically significant difference between the particle size distribution parameters, as measured by laser scattering. The emitted fraction varied in vivo compared to the in vitro condition. Fluorescent particle distribution in the lungs was uniform and reached the alveolar spaces, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. In terms of drug recovery in lung tissue, a minimum administered powder mass (in this case ∼1mg) was necessary to recover at least 30% of the emitted dose in the lung and to obtain reproducible pulmonary concentrations. To reduce the dose administered in the lung, it was preferable to dilute the active ingredient within the carrier instead of reducing the dry powder mass inserted in the sampling chamber. Dry powder insufflators are devices usable in dose-dependent preclinical trials but have critical parameters to efficiently deliver reproducible doses depending on the type of formulation.

 

Trivanillic polyphenols with anticancer cytostatic effects through the targeting of multiple kinases and intracellular Ca 2+ release

Lamoral-Theys, D., Wauthoz, N., Heffeter, P., Mathieu, V., Jungwirth, U., Lefranc, F., Neve, J., Dubois, J., Dufrasne, F., Amighi, K., Berger, W., Gailly, P., & Kiss, R. (2012). Trivanillic polyphenols with anticancer cytostatic effects through the targeting of multiple kinases and intracellular Ca 2+ release. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 16(7), 1421-1434. doi:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2011.01403.x.  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/126042/1/JCMM_16_1421.pdf

 

New Respirable and Fast Dissolving Itraconazole Dry Powder Composition for the Treatment of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

Duret, C., Wauthoz, N., Sebti, T., Vanderbist, F., & Amighi, K. (2012). New Respirable and Fast Dissolving Itraconazole Dry Powder Composition for the Treatment of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis. Pharmaceutical research, 29(10), 2845-2859. doi:10.1007/s11095-012-0779-4  

PURPOSE: Novel itraconazole (ITZ)-based dry powders for inhalation (DPI) were optimized for aerodynamic and dissolution properties and contained excipients that are acceptable for inhalation. METHODS: The DPI were produced by spray drying solutions. The drug content, crystallinity state, and morphological evaluation of the dry powders were determined by high performance liquid chromatography, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. A particle size analysis was conducted using laser light scattering. The aerodynamic behaviors of the powders were characterized by impaction tests. ITZ dissolution rates were evaluated using a dissolution method adapted to inhaled products. RESULTS: The DPI presented very high fine particle fractions that ranged from 46.9% to 67.0% of the nominal dose. The formulations showed very fast dissolution rates compared to unformulated crystalline ITZ with the possibility of modulating the dissolution rate by varying the quantity of phospholipids (PL) incorporated. ITZ remained amorphous while the mannitol was crystalline. The α, β and δ-mannitol polymorph ratios varied depending on the formulation compositions. CONCLUSION: This formulation strategy could be an attractive alternative for treating invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The ITZ and PL content are key characteristics because of their influence on the dissolution rate and aerosol performance.

 

Solid dispersions of itraconazole for inhalation with enhanced dissolution, solubility and dispersion properties.

Duret, C., Wauthoz, N., Sebti, T., Vanderbist, F., & Amighi, K. (2012). Solid dispersions of itraconazole for inhalation with enhanced dissolution, solubility and dispersion properties. International journal of pharmaceutics, 428(1-2), 103-113. doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2012.03.002  

The purpose of this study was to produce a dry powder for inhalation (DPI) of a poorly soluble active ingredient (itraconazole: ITZ) that would present an improved dissolution rate and enhanced solubility with good aerosolization properties. Solid dispersions of amorphous ITZ, mannitol and, when applicable, D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) were produced by spray-drying hydro-alcoholic solutions in which all agents were dissolved. These dry formulations were characterized in terms of their aerosol performances and their dissolution, solubility and physical properties. Modulate differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction analyses showed that ITZ recovered from the different spray-dried solutions was in an amorphous state and that mannitol was crystalline. The inlet drying temperature and, indirectly, the outlet temperature selected during the spray-drying were critical parameters. The outlet temperature should be below the ITZ glass transition temperature to avoid severe particle agglomeration. The formation of a solid dispersion between amorphous ITZ and mannitol allowed the dry powder to be produced with an improved dissolution rate, greater saturation solubility than bulk ITZ and good aerosol properties. The use of a polymeric surfactant (such as TPGS) was beneficial in terms of dissolution rate acceleration and solubility enhancement, but it also reduced aerosol performance. For example, significant dissolution rate acceleration (f(2)<50) and greater saturation solubility were obtained when introducing 1% (w/w) TPGS (mean dissolution time dropped from 50.4 min to 36.9 min and saturation solubility increased from 20 ± 3 ng/ml to 46 ± 2 ng/ml). However, the fine particle fraction dropped from 47 ± 2% to 37.2 ± 0.4%. This study showed that mannitol solid dispersions may provide an effective formulation type for producing DPIs of poorly soluble active ingredients, as exemplified by ITZ.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/122586/4/Elsevier_103760.pdf

 

Lactose characteristics and the generation of the aerosol

Pilcer, G., Wauthoz, N., & Amighi, K. (2012). Lactose characteristics and the generation of the aerosol. Advanced drug delivery reviews, 64(3), doi:10.1016/j.addr.2011.05.003, 233-256.  

The delivery efficiency of dry-powder products for inhalation is dependent upon the drug formulation, the inhaler device, and the inhalation technique. Dry powder formulations are generally produced by mixing the micronised drug particles with larger carrier particles. These carrier particles are commonly lactose. The aerosol performance of a powder is highly dependent on the lactose characteristics, such as particle size distribution and shape and surface properties. Because lactose is the main component in these formulations, its selection is a crucial determinant of drug deposition into the lung, as interparticle forces may be affected by the carrier-particle properties. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review the various grades of lactose, their production, and the methods of their characterisation. The origin of their adhesive and cohesive forces and their influence on aerosol generation are described, and the impact of the physicochemical properties of lactose on carrier-drug dispersion is discussed in detail.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/106563/3/2011ADDRpreprint.pdf

 

2010

Temozolomide-Based Dry Powder Formulations for Lung Tumor-Related Inhalation Treatment.

Wauthoz, N., Deleuze, P., Saumet, A., Duret, C., Kiss, R., & Amighi, K. (2010). Temozolomide-Based Dry Powder Formulations for Lung Tumor-Related Inhalation Treatment. Pharmaceutical research, 28(4), 762-75. doi:10.1007/s11095-010-0329-x  

PURPOSE: Temozolomide dry powder formulations for inhalation, performed with no excipient or with a lipid or lactose coating, have been evaluated. METHODS: The particle size of raw temozolomide in suspension was reduced by a high-pressure homogenizing technique, and the solvent was evaporated by spray-drying to obtain a dry powder. The physicochemical properties of this powder were evaluated and included its crystalline state, thermal properties, morphology, particle size and moisture and drug content, and these properties were determined by X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, laser light scattering, thermogravimetric analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The aerodynamic properties and release profiles were also evaluated using a multistage liquid impinger and a modified USP type 2 dissolution apparatus adapted for inhaler products, respectively. RESULTS: The dry powder inhalation formulations had a high temozolomide content that ranged from 70% to 100% in the crystalline state and low moisture content. Aerodynamic evaluations showed high fine-particle fractions of up to 51% related to the metered dose. The dissolution profile revealed a similarly fast temozolomide release from the formulations. CONCLUSIONS: Dry temozolomide powder formulations, based on the use of acceptable excipients for inhalation and showing good dispersion properties, represent an attractive alternative for use in local lung cancer therapy.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/70295/2/2011Wauthozpreprint.pdf

 

Simple di- and trivanillates exhibit cytostatic properties toward cancer cells resistant to pro-apoptotic stimuli

Lamoral-Theys, D., Pottier, L., Kerff, F., Dufrasne, F., Proutiere, F., Wauthoz, N., Neven, P., Ingrassia, L., Van Antwerpen, P., Lefranc, F., Gelbcke, M., Pirotte, B., Kraus, J.-L., Neve, J., Kornienko, A., Kiss, R., & Dubois, J. (2010). Simple di- and trivanillates exhibit cytostatic properties toward cancer cells resistant to pro-apoptotic stimuli. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry, 18(11), 3823-3833. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2010.04.047  
https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/129469/1/BMC_18_3823.pdf

 

In vivo assessment of temozolomide local delivery for lung cancer inhalation therapy.

Wauthoz, N., Deleuze, P., Hecq, J., Roland, I., Saussez, S., Adanja, I., Debeir, O., Decaestecker, C., Mathieu, V., Kiss, R., & Amighi, K. (2010). In vivo assessment of temozolomide local delivery for lung cancer inhalation therapy. European journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 39, 402-411. doi:10.1016/j.ejps.2010.01.010  

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of local drug delivery by inhalation to intravenous delivery in a B16F10 melanoma metastatic lung model. Temozolomide was formulated as a suspension, which was elaborated and evaluated in terms of particle size, shape and agglomeration. An endotracheal administration device was used to aerosolise the suspension. This mode of delivery was evaluated at different temozolomide concentrations and was optimized for the uniformity of delivered dose, the droplet size distribution and the distribution of droplets in vivo. Of the particles in the stabilised suspension, 79% were compatible with the human respirable size range, and this formulation retained 100% in vitro anticancer activity as compared to temozolomide alone in three distinct cancer cell lines. The pulmonary delivery device provided good reproducibility in terms of both the dose delivered and the droplet size distribution. Most of the lung tissues that were exposed to aerosol droplets contained the particles, as revealed by fluorescent microscopy techniques. The global in vivo antitumour activity of the inhaled temozolomide provided a median survival period similar to that for intravenous temozolomide delivery, and three out of 27 mice (11%) survived with almost complete eradication of the lung tumours. The present study thus shows that inhalation of a simple liquid formulation is well tolerated and active against a very biologically aggressive mouse melanoma pulmonary pseudo-metastatic model. This inhalation delivery could be used to deliver other types of anticancer drugs.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/51846/13/2010Wauthozpreprintok.pdf

 

2009

Lycorine, the main phenanthridine Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, exhibits significant antitumor activity in cancer cells that display resistance to proapoptotic stimuli: an investigation of structure-activity relationship and mechanistic insight.

Lamoral-Theys, D., Andolfi, A., Van Goietsenoven, G., Cimmino, A., Le Calve, B., Wauthoz, N., Megalizzi, V., Gras, T., Bruyère, C., Dubois, J., Mathieu, V., Kornienko, A., Kiss, R., & Evidente, A. (2009). Lycorine, the main phenanthridine Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, exhibits significant antitumor activity in cancer cells that display resistance to proapoptotic stimuli: an investigation of structure-activity relationship and mechanistic insight. Journal of medicinal chemistry, 52(20), 6244-6256. doi:10.1021/jm901031h  

Twenty-two lycorine-related compounds were investigated for in vitro antitumor activity using four cancer cell lines displaying different levels of resistance to proapoptotic stimuli and two cancer cell lines sensitive to proapoptotic stimuli. Lycorine and six of its congeners exhibited potency in the single-digit micromolar range, while no compound appeared more active than lycorine. Lycorine also displayed the highest potential (in vitro) therapeutic ratio, being at least 15 times more active against cancer than normal cells. Our studies also showed that lycorine exerts its in vitro antitumor activity through cytostatic rather than cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, lycorine provided significant therapeutic benefit in mice bearing brain grafts of the B16F10 melanoma model at nontoxic doses. Thus, the results of the current study make lycorine an excellent lead for the generation of compounds able to combat cancers, which are naturally resistant to proapoptotic stimuli, such as glioblastoma, melanoma, non-small-cell-lung cancers, and metastatic cancers, among others.

 

Nano-emulsions of fluorinated trityl radicals as sensors for EPR oximetry.

Charlier, N., Driesschaert, B., Wauthoz, N., Beghein, N., Préat, V., Amighi, K., Marchand-Brynaert, J., & Gallez, B. (2009). Nano-emulsions of fluorinated trityl radicals as sensors for EPR oximetry. Journal of magnetic resonance, 197(2), 176-180. doi:10.1016/j.jmr.2008.12.013  

This article reports the development and evaluation of two nano-emulsions (F45T-03/HFB and F15T-03/PFOB) containing fluorinated trityl radicals dissolved in perfluorocarbons. Preparation with a high-pressure homogenizer conferred sub-micronic size to both nano-emulsions. In vitro and in vivo EPR spectroscopy showed that the nano-emulsions had much greater oxygen sensitivity than the hydrophilic trityl, CT-03. In vivo experiments in rodents confirmed the ability of the nano-emulsions to follow the changes in oxygen concentration after induced ischemia. Histological evaluation of the tissue injected with the nano-emulsions revealed some acute toxicity for the F45T-03/HFB nano-emulsion but none for the F15T-03/PFOB nano-emulsion. These new formulations should be considered for further EPR oximetry experiments in pathophysiological situations where subtle changes in tissue oxygenation are expected.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/68046/1/Elsevier_45115.pdf

 

2007

Ethnopharmacology of Mangifera indica L. Bark and Pharmacological Studies of its Main C-Gucosylxanthone, Mangiferin

Wauthoz, N., Balde, A., Balde, E. S., Van Damme, M., & Duez, P. (2007). Ethnopharmacology of Mangifera indica L. Bark and Pharmacological Studies of its Main C-Gucosylxanthone, Mangiferin. International Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1(2), 112-119.  

This review details the vernacular names, origin, distribution, taxonomy and variety of Mangifera indica L. (Anacariaceae), a medicinal plant traditionally used in tropical regions. Mangiferin, a major C-glucosylxanthone from M. indica stem bark, leaves, heartwood, roots and fruits ocurs widely among different angiosperm families and ferns. The reported pharmacological activities of mangiferin include antioxidant, radioprotective, antitumor, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, lipolytic, antibone resorption, monoamine oxidase inhibiting, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial and antiparasitic properties, which may support the numerous traditional uses of the plant.

https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/68233/1/IJBPS-20-2007.pdf